Abraham Morwitch

From Hotels of Ballarat
Abraham Morwitch
Born 1830
Krakow, Poland
Died November 1882
Brisbane, Queensland
Occupation Publican
Years active 1858-1867
Known for Great Britain Hotel
Spouse(s) Catherine Foley (mistress)
  • Jacob Abraham Morwitch (father)
  • Rachel (mother)

Abraham Morwitch was a publican in Ballarat, <1857-1867.

History[edit | edit source]

Abraham Morwitch was one of four sons of Rachel and Jacob Abraham Morwitch. He was born in Krakow, Poland, in 1830. The sons, Samuel, Abraham, Lyons, and Henry, came to Ballarat in the 1850s, and later moved to Queensland.[1]

In September 1856, Abraham's brother, Samuel was advertising his business in Main Road:

Great Britain Auction Mart, Opposite Charlie Napier, Main-road, S. MORWITCH has Sales of Boots, Shoes, Clothing and Jewellery Of every description, at Twelve o'clock sharp, every MONDAY, THURSDAY & SATURDAY.[2]

In February 1857, Abraham and his brothers Samuel and Henry, were made naturalised citizens, and took the oath of allegiance.[3]

Morwitch was the licensee of the Great Britain Hotel in Main Road, Ballarat, from at least June 1857 to 1864.[4][5]

In 1858 he was charged with having an unlicensed bagatelle table.[6]

In March 1860 Morwitch was fined for breaching licensing laws:

Same v Abraham Morwitch, for a similar offence. Constable Tobin deposed that the defendant had his house open between twelve and one o'clock on Saturday night. He had repeatedly been cautioned before. The defendant was fined 5s.[7]

In June 1860 a local farmer took Abraham, Samuel, and Lyons Morwitch to court over an unpaid debt. The judge suggested the brothers were lying:

M'Lean Brothers v Morwitch Brothers £44, value of bullocks sold. Mr Randall for plaintiff, Mr Cuthbert for defendant. Plaintiff was a farmer at Lake Learmonth, and had sold, as he alleged, some bullocks to defendants, the price whereof he now sought to recover. Mr Cuthbert admitted that Abraham and Lyons Morwitch had bought the bullocks for £44, but they had paid £20, and had subsequently offered to sell a horse, value £20. One of the bullocks died, and plaintiff then consented to take, and did take, the horse in satisfaction of all demands.

Samuel Morwitch deposed that a receipt for £20 produced, signed by Andrew M'Lean, was signed by him in his presence, the £20 being then paid. He also heard the bargain made relative to the horse, and saw M'Lean take the horse away. Cross examined-I am a partner with my brother Abraham in the Great Britain Hotel. Lyons paid M'Lean the £20 when I and Abraham Morwitch were present. It was upstairs in the hotel. Don't know if anybody else was present. I am certain the money was all notes. I heard some time ago that Andrew M'Lean was gone away from the colony. There was no receipt for the horse that I know of. Sometimes when a man has a few glasses in his head he doesn't know what is done. His Honor-Do you mean to say that Andrew M'Lean was intoxicated sir ? Witness-Oh no, they were not intoxicated. They were only jolly. That man (Young) never applied to me for the balance. Never seen him that I know of; I never said I had paid the money. It was my brother paid the money.

Abraham Morwitch deposed that he saw Andrew M'Lean sign the receipt when £20 was paid. It was paid in notes he believed; M'Lean said he would cry quits if the mare was given up. I am certain M'Lean did not drink more than one glass of ale. I take my oath he and my brother did not drink several glasses together. The bargain about the mare was made in the stable, and M'Lean never came back to the hotel after that. He did come back to the hotel and the sale note was then made out. His Honor commented on the contradictions in the evidence. Lyons Morwitch was then called in, but Mr Cuthbert declined to examine him. Mr Randall said if Mr Cuthbert was ashamed to ask him anything, he would not ask him anything. His Honor remarked that the defendant's attorney had acted discreetly. No doubt defendants came there to perjure themselves, for he thought it was plain no money had been paid. Verdict for plaintiff for £24, and costs, £6 17s.[8]

On 11 January 1861, Morwitch's hotel was one of many buildings destroyed by fire. He was not insured.

"...The morning of the 11th January, 1861, will long be remembered as a sad epoch in the annals of Ballarat. Sixty buildings, including shops and stores, two theatres, &c, either burned down or gutted, and some forty others seriously damaged, and a loss of property estimated at £50,000..."[9]

His brothers were affected by another Main Road fire in November 1862, Lyons lost his hotel, the Horse Bazaar Hotel, and Henry, and auctioneer, lost his office.[10]

In 1863, the Licensing Court refused to renew his license:

"A. Morwitch, Great Britain Hotel, Main road. Inspector Kabat read out a list of several fines against the applicant, and said the house was not well conducted, as very disorderly conduct was carried on there occasionally. Sergeant Lamer said that on several occasions be had seen prostitutes fighting in the house. The applicant had even been fined for allowing such conduct in his house. Inspector Kabat said he had often witnessed drunken brawls in the house. The applicant had been fined 40s, 5s, and 10s. The Bench refused the license."[11]

On 10 February 1864, Abraham Morwitch, licensed victualler of Ballarat, is listed as insolvent in the Geelong Court of Insolvency (VPRS 815/57/1356).[12]

Abraham and Samuel Morwitch, of Ballarat Licensed Victuallers. Debts, £1796 12s 8d ; assets, £2427 10s ; surplus, £630, 17s 4d. Causes of insolvency - Losses by fire, depreciation of property, falling off in business and pressure of creditors.[13]

At a hearing in March 1864 the debts could not be proved and the case was closed.[14]

In September 1864, Morwitch had taken on the lease of the old Charlie Napier Theatre in Main Road:

In contradiction of a rumor which we mentioned in our issue of Friday, to the effect that the Charlie Napier Theatre was to be turned into a brewery, Mr Morwitch,, the lessee of that house, writes to inform us that, so far from that, he flatters himself he has "turned it into a theatre." Mr Morwitch says he has a three years' lease of the premises and, not being a fanatic in affairs teetotal, he intends "not to make the theatre a place to brew the refreshing beverage, but merely to vend it in at reasonable charges."[15]

In May 1865 a woman charged Morwitch with using offensive language:

Katherine Gainsborg v Isaac Abraham Morwitch, a summons for abusive language; Mr M'Dermott for the plaintiff. Mr Lewis for the defendant. There was a cross-case of a similar sort by the defendant against the plaintiff, and the quarrel appeared to be a very paltry one between some Polish or German Hebrew families living in Main street. A part of the language complained of was said to be unpolite phrases culled from the Hebrew tongue. A witness named Bock was called upon to give the oriental word for " vagabone," and he said, amid the merriment of the Court, the Hebrew for the word was " loafer." The same witness said the abuse was in " broken gibbirish," which Mr Lewis interpreted to be "half Hebrew and half Polish," or " half Hebrew and half English." The defendant cum plaintiff Morwitch, made the remarkable assertion that he was never in a passion in his life, and though the first plaintiff was very annoying the worst thing he called her was "a beggar," in Hebrew. Mr Clissold dismissed both cases, cautioning both sides not to be guilty of using such bad language again.[16]

In February 1866, Catherine Foley, the mistress of Abraham Morwitch, unsuccessfully applied for the license of the Great Britain Hotel. It was opposed by the police as they described Foley as being of bad character. The hotel was a haven for thieves and prostitutes who were encouraged by Foley.[17]

In February 1867, Morwitch appears at a certificate meeting at the Insolvent Court.[18] He was granted a certificate of discharge at the court in November 1867.[19]

In July 1867 Morwitch was found smoking a pipe which had been stolen from a nearby tobacconist:

"...The police were communicated with, but none of the pipes were seen again till Senior constable Thomas Mansfield saw the largest and best of them in the possession of Abraham Morwitch, manager of the Great Britain Hotel, on the Main-road. Mr. Morwitch was calmly smoking it at his door, when the watchful policeman recognised it as stolen property. Inquiries were made, and it was found that the prisoner, a fisherman at Sandridge, had sold it to a professional singer named Dunant, who in his turn sold it to Morwitch for 3s., its intrinsic worth being £1..."[20]

By December 1867, the Morwitch brothers have gone to the goldfields at Gympie, Queensland, where gold had just been discovered. (First called Nashville, the town was renamed in 1868). Samuel advertises in December 1867 that he is going to apply for a license for the Brisbane Hotel[21], but he has transferred the license by January 1868.[22] However in February 1868, Abraham advertises he is going to apply for the license of the Brisbane Hotel:

To the Worshipful the Justices of the Peace, acting in and for the District of Maryborough, in Queensland. I ABRAHAM MORWITCH, now residing at Nashville, in the District of Wide Bay, do hereby give Notice that it is my intention to apply at the next Licensing Meeting, to be holden for this District on the 11th day of MARCH, 1868, next ensuing, for a Publican's License for the Sale of Fermented and Spirituous Liquors, in the House and appurtenances thereunto belonging, situated at Nashville, under the sign of the Brisbane Hotel, and which I intend to keep as an Inn or Public house. I am not married, and have not held a license before. The house contains Four rooms, exclusive of those required for my own private use, Given under my hand this seventeenth day of February, one thousand eight hundred and sixty-eight. (Signed) ABRAHAM MORWITCH.[23]

Henry is already well established when Samuel and Abraham arrive and he puts a notice in the local paper in March 1868 warning people not to believe his brothers are acting for or with him:

NOTICE THE UNDERSIGNED, give Notice that I will not be responsible for any DEBTS contracted by my two brothers, Samuel Morwitch and Abraham Morwitch, lately arrived from Victoria, and they have no authority to collect any debts for me. Any one giving them credit will be at their own risk. H. MORWITCH, Auctioneer and Pawnbroker, Queen-street, Brisbane, and Mary-street, Nashville.[24]

In the same issue of the paper, Abraham advertises he is going to apply for the license of the Albion Hotel (is this a "renamed" Brisbane Hotel?):

To the Worshipful the Justices of the Peace, acting in and for Nashville, in the District of Maryborough, in the Colony of Queensland. I, ABRAHAM MORWlTCH, now residing at Nashville, in the district of Maryborough, do hereby give notice that it is my intention to apply at the next Licensing Meeting, to be holden for this district on the eleventh day of March next ensuing, for a Publican's' License for the sale of fermented and spirituous liquors in the house and appurtenances thereunto belonging, situated at Nashville, and which I intend to keep as an Inn or Public house, under the sign of the Albion Hotel. I am not married, and have held a license before. Given under my hand this third day of March, one thousand eight hundred and sixty eight. ABRAHAM MORWITOH.[24]

Abraham is called as a witness when Henry charges his brother Samuel with embezzlement:

CHARGE OF EMBEZZLEMENT. — Thomas Halloran deposed that he apprehended prisoner on the 24th instant. He stated the nature of the charge to him, when defendant said that the plaintiff, his brother, wished to ruin him. Henry Morwitch deposed: I am a storekeeper at Nashville; I entrusted the prisoner with some property to bring to the diggings and open a store; he is my brother ; I considered him neither a partner nor a servant ; my intention was to start him in business if his conduct was satisfactory ; there was no agreement between us whatever other wise ; I went down to Brisbane last Saturday, leaving a young man in charge, with instructions to place all money received to my credit in the Commercial Bank ; I distinctly stated, to prisoner that he was not to receive any money for me ; on my return last Sunday I asked the prisoner for the money ; he refused to give it to me; he said he had a claim on me, which I did not acknowledge ; he delivered some money to me when he was arrested ; I received various sums in money and gold from the prisoner, but never offered to buy him out or give him anything for partnership. Abraham Morwitch deposed that he was plaintiff's brother, as well as defendant's; he remembered prosecutor offering defendant one hundred pounds for his share in the business ; he acted as arbitrator, and recommended prosecutor to give a little more, rather than have a dispute, and the prosecutor agreed to give one hundred and fifty pounds; prisoner transferred his business license. Case dismissed.[25]

A week later Henry took Samuel to court again on another charge, and claimed Samuel had stolen his silver watch and raffled it.[26] By November 1858 Samuel has taken the license for the Golden Age Hotel at Kilkivan, about 40kms west of Gympie.[27]

In September 1875 the Morwitch brothers, have gone into the sawmill business. During a court action to recover a couple of small debts, the magistrate again threatened to charge Abraham Morwitch for perjury:

Petty Debts Court. Monday, September 6 (Before the Police Magistrate and H. Joseph, J.P.) Scott v. Abraham and Samuel Morwitch, goods sold and delivered £9 5s. 10d.— In this case Mr. Smith, who appeared for Abraham, asked for an adjournment of the case because Samuel Morwich was in Brisbane. Mr. Power objected, and the Bench decided on non-adjournment Mr. Scott deposed that defendants jointly ordered goods from him at different dates extending from the 15th of August 1872 to November 11 of the same year, when the Morwitches were indebted to him £15 1s. 4d ; he received timber from them charged at £5 15s. 6d., and struck a balance by which he was a creditor for the amount sued for, £9 5s. 10d. The goods supplied were ordered and delivered to defendants, both A. and S. Morwitch taking delivery. A. Morwitch denied any partnership with his brother, and said Mr. Scott had refused him credit and would not supply goods unless the order was authorised by Samuel Morwitch. He however had signed a promissory note with his brother in favor of a gentleman named M'Millan. Miss Foley, housekeeper to Mr. Abraham Morwitch, corroborated the statements of Mr. A. Morwitch, especially as to the refusal of Mr. Scott to supply Mr. A Morwitch with goods with out an order from his brother Samuel ; whatever articles were obtained from Mr. Scott by Mr. Abraham, subsequent to the refusal of credit, were paid for. Abraham Morwitch had he interest in the sawmill. The accounts of the two brothers, as far as expenses of living were concerned, were separate. In consequence of the time of the court being taken up in examining every item of account presented as appearing in Mr. Scott's day-book this case occupied the whole of the forenoon. Verdict for plaintiff for amount claimed, £9 5s. 10d., 9s. costs, and professional costs 20s., or immediate execution. Mr. Smith for defendants.

Kidman v. A. and S. Morwitch. goods sold and delivered, £9 12s. 11d. — A part of this alleged debt outside the statute of limitation for the recovery of petty debts had to be abandoned, and judgment was given for £5 10s. 2d., with 9s. cost, and professional coats 20s., Mr. Power for plaintiff; Mr. Smith for defendant.

Abraham Morwitch v. Kidman, for timber sold and delivered.— During the hearing of the case the Police Magistrate commented very severely on the conduct of the plaintiff, who swore in the case Scott v. Morwitch that he was in no way interested in his brother's business and that he kept no books, while in the present case he produced his books and acknowledged that he had sold timber both on his brother's account and his own. Mr. Smith, for plaintiff, withdrew from the account sundry articles, and merely claimed for slabs, rafters and roof of a house. It was subsequently proved by defendant that the rafters &c., wore obtained from Samuel Morwitch for use while the bridge over Nash's Gully was in course of erection ; and as the bridge had been completed more than three years before the issue of the summons the Bench decided they had no jurisdiction.— During Mr. Power's address he asked the Bench to attach much greater credence to the evidence of defendant than to that of plaintiff; if the latter were in his proper place he he would be in the dock charged with perjury. He never heard a witness prevaricate as plaintiff had done. The P.M. said he was very doubtful whether he ought not to commit plaintiff for perjury ; he was of opinion that Mr. Powers remarks were perfectly just and merited.[28]

The case was heard in the District Court in October 1875, interestingly the timber in question was from the dismantled Albion Hotel:

MORWITCH V. KIDMAN AND SCOTT. Action taken to recover for goods sold and delivered £9. In defence non-indebtedness was pleaded and that the goods in question were lent by plaintiff to defendant and afterwards returned. A. Morwitch, examined by Mr. Smith, deposed to being a general dealer ; sold to defendants 50 iron bark slabs and other portions of a building formerly known as the Albion Hotel ; the slabs were used in connection with a bridge being built at the time over Nash's Gully ; the other timber was used to make a shed for the workmen; I told Kidman I wanted 2s. each for the slabs and £4 for the rest of the timber required ; Samuel Morwitch and Miss Foley were present at the sale ; Kidman and his men took the articles away ; they were never returned. By Mr. Power : I delivered the slabs ; my brother did not lend then ; the slabs were from a building I paid £57 for to Crees and partner ; I never got a stick back. By His Honor : The slabs were used in supporting the embankment by the bridge ; they got buried in and could not be drawn. Mr. Samuel Morwitch, who described himself as a merchant, late of Gympie, corroborated the evidence of former witness. Miss Foley deposed to having heard the agreement as to the purchase and having also seen the slabs counted ; there were fifty of them ; she had never used as fire wood any portions of the building alleged to have been returned. For the defence, Mr. Kidman stated that, at the time the work of the new bridge was commenced he wanted the loan of a few slabs and part of a roof to form a shed for the subcontractors, and asked Morwitch for the loan of the articles; Morwitch said he could take what he liked ; his men took the part of a roof and 20 slabs, at most, away ; the articles were returned, except a few of the slabs that could not be recovered. R. Gunn deposed to returning the goods. Verdict for defendants. Abraham Morwitch v.. Kidman.— Goods sold and delivered £4. It was admitted by defendant that he had received timber, from the saw-mill belonging to Morwitch, but denied that he had received as much as stated in the demand, or that he had agreed to pay the prices charged. In plaintiff's examination he denied having had any partner in the timber-cutting business, although he admitted, what was indeed proved, that he had advertised in the Gympie Times as Morwitch and Co. Verdict for plaintiff for 12s.[29]

In October 1876, Morwitch's Miss Foley was charged and fined £30 for sly grog selling at Gympie.[30]

In December 1879, Morwitch was one of several people charged in the Brisbane court for sly grog selling.[31]

Morwitch died in Brisbane in November 1882:

THE FRIENDS of the late Mr. ABRAHAM MORWITCH are respectfully INVITED to ATTEND his FUNERAL ; to move from the residence of his brother (Mr. Lyons Morwitch), No. 1 Princess-row (Petrie-terrace), THIS (Monday) AFTERNOON, 20th November, at 3 o'clock, to the Brisbane General Cemetery. W. WALSH, Undertaker, George-street. 7083[32]

Lyons Morwitch died in Brisbane in December 1905.[33]

See also[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. Morwitch, Polish Forums.com, 2011, https://polishforums.com/genealogy/family-name-morwitch-anglicised-51536/
  2. 1856 'Advertising', The Star (Ballarat, Vic. : 1855 - 1864), 23 September, p. 1. , viewed 01 Sep 2019, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article66039570
  3. 1857 'CIRCUIT COURT.', The Star (Ballarat, Vic. : 1855 - 1864), 17 February, p. 2. , viewed 31 Aug 2019, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article66040968
  4. 1857 'POLICE COURT.', The Star (Ballarat, Vic. : 1855 - 1864), 25 July, p. 2. , viewed 30 Aug 2019, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article66043368
  5. 1859 'AFTERNOON SITTINGS.', The Star (Ballarat, Vic. : 1855 - 1864), 14 June, p. 3. , viewed 29 Aug 2019, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article66053609
  6. 1858 'EASTERN POLICE COURT.', The Star (Ballarat, Vic. : 1855 - 1864), 13 December, p. 4, viewed 21 October, 2014, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article66332732
  7. 1860 'EASTERN POLICE COURT.', The Star (Ballarat, Vic. : 1855 - 1864), 5 March, p. 4. , viewed 31 Aug 2019, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article72465385
  8. 1860 'COUNTY COURT.', The Star (Ballarat, Vic. : 1855 - 1864), 8 June, p. 2. , viewed 31 Aug 2019, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article66056314
  9. 1861 'THE CONFLAGRATION ON THE MAIN ROAD.', The Star (Ballarat, Vic. : 1855 - 1864), 12 January, p. 2. , viewed 29 Dec 2016, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article66336805
  10. 1862 'THE LATE FIRE AT BALLARAT.', Geelong Advertiser (Vic. : 1859 - 1929), 29 November, p. 3. , viewed 01 Sep 2019, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article148904339
  11. 1863 'BALLARAT EAST LICENSING BENCH.', The Star (Ballarat, Vic. : 1855 - 1864), 18 June, p. 4, viewed 4 February, 2014, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article72515106
  12. http://zades.com.au/gandd/index.php/databases/potpourri/ppindexes/ppinsolv
  13. 1864 'NEW INSOLVENTS.', The Star (Ballarat, Vic. : 1855 - 1864), 10 February, p. 3. , viewed 31 Aug 2019, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article72513494
  14. 1864 'GEELONG INSOLVENT COURT.', The Star (Ballarat, Vic. : 1855 - 1864), 25 March, p. 1. (SUPPLEMENT TO THE STAR.), viewed 20 Aug 2019, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article72514565
  15. 1864 'NEWS AND NOTES.', The Star (Ballarat, Vic. : 1855 - 1864), 24 September, p. 2. , viewed 01 Sep 2019, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article66348317
  16. 1865 'POLICE.', The Ballarat Star (Vic. : 1865 - 1924), 4 May, p. 3. , viewed 31 Aug 2019, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article112886468
  17. 1866 'POLICE.', The Ballarat Star (Vic. : 1865 - 1924), 22 February, p. 2. (SUPPLEMENT TO THE BALLARAT STAR), viewed 21 Apr 2017, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article112867548
  18. 1867 'LAW NOTICES.—(This Day.)', The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957), 22 February, p. 5. , viewed 31 Aug 2019, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article5786731
  19. 1867 'INSOLVENT COURT.', The Age (Melbourne, Vic. : 1854 - 1954), 9 November, p. 7. , viewed 31 Aug 2019, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article185502318
  20. 1867 'BALLARAT CIRCUIT COURT.', The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957), 16 July, p. 6. , viewed 31 Aug 2019, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article5772381
  21. 1867 'Advertising', Maryborough Chronicle, Wide Bay and Burnett Advertiser (Qld. : 1860 - 1947), 4 December, p. 1. , viewed 01 Sep 2019, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article148328787
  22. 1868 'ARRIVAL OF THE ENGLISH MAIL', Maryborough Chronicle, Wide Bay and Burnett Advertiser (Qld. : 1860 - 1947), 15 January, p. 2. , viewed 01 Sep 2019, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article148329641
  23. 1868 'Advertising', Maryborough Chronicle, Wide Bay and Burnett Advertiser (Qld. : 1860 - 1947), 22 February, p. 3. , viewed 01 Sep 2019, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article148329253
  24. 24.0 24.1 1868 'Advertising', Nashville Times, Gympie and Mary River Mining Gazette (Qld. : 1868), 4 March, p. 2. , viewed 01 Sep 2019, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article168844579
  25. 1868 'GYMPIE CREEK.', The Toowoomba Chronicle and Queensland Advertiser (Qld. : 1861 - 1875), 11 March, p. 3. , viewed 31 Aug 2019, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article212781685
  26. 1868 'ARRIVAL OF THE ENGLISH MAIL, VIA SUEZ.', The Brisbane Courier (Qld. : 1864 - 1933), 18 March, p. 3. , viewed 01 Sep 2019, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article1298931
  27. 1868 'Advertising', Gympie Times and Mary River Mining Gazette (Qld. : 1868 - 1919), 5 November, p. 2. , viewed 01 Sep 2019, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article168608433
  28. 1875 'Petty Debts Court.', Gympie Times and Mary River Mining Gazette (Qld. : 1868 - 1919), 8 September, p. 3. , viewed 31 Aug 2019, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article168907416
  29. 1875 'District Court.', Gympie Times and Mary River Mining Gazette (Qld. : 1868 - 1919), 16 October, p. 3. , viewed 01 Sep 2019, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article168907976
  30. 1876 'GYMPIE.', The Telegraph (Brisbane, Qld. : 1872 - 1947), 17 October, p. 2. , viewed 01 Sep 2019, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article174709510
  31. 1879 'City-Police Court.', The Brisbane Courier (Qld. : 1864 - 1933), 6 December, p. 6. , viewed 31 Aug 2019, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article888393
  32. 1882 'Family Notices', The Brisbane Courier (Qld. : 1864 - 1933), 20 November, p. 1. , viewed 31 Aug 2019, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article3403353
  33. 1905 'Family Notices', The Telegraph (Brisbane, Qld. : 1872 - 1947), 5 December, p. 4. (SECOND EDITION), viewed 31 Aug 2019, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article173408133

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