Antonio Meriga

From Hotels of Ballarat
Antonio Giovanni Meriga
Born c.1820
Cyprus
Died 19 October 1896
Normanton, Queensland
Occupation Publican
Years active 1863-1871
Known for Athens Hotel
Criterion Hotel (Normnanton, Qld.)
Home town Daylesford
Spouse(s) Miriam Moss
Children Susan
Giovanni
Elizabeth Crystal
Samuel
<Henry
Rachel Ellen
Morris

Antonio Giovanni Meriga was a publican in Daylesford, <1863-1871>.

History[edit | edit source]

Antonio Meriga was born c.1820[1] on Cyprus.[2]

He married Miriam Moss in Victoria in 1857[3]. They had several children including:

  • Susan Crystal (c.1857, Hepburn)[4] (Another later source has Susannah (c.1855)[5])
  • Giovanni Vittorio(c.1859, Spring Creek)[5][6]
  • Elizabeth Crystal (c.1861, Hepburn)[5][7]
  • Samuel (1862, Hepburn-2 May 1897, Normanton).[8][9]
  • Henry Alexander (1864, Daylesford - 1864 Daylesford).[10][11]
  • Rachel Ellen (16 June 1865, Daylesford - 8 July 1942)[5][12]
  • Morriss Ehepherie Duke (c.1867, Daylesford)[13]

In 1857 he applied for a government job:

MERIGA, Antonio Giovani, Daylesford, 1857, born Cyprus, speaks 6 languages, for position as interpreter, 3 pages, List 36.[14]

By 1859 he was in Hepburn, acting as the Hepburn agent for the Age newspaper.[15] While in Hepburn, their house was struck by lightning:

Electrical Phenomenon.— On Sunday last, during the thunderstorm, a most singular phenomenon occurred at Spring Creek, fortunately without any serious injury being done. It is thus described by Mr Meriga, who had a good opportunity of observing it. As that gentleman and his wife were sitting on either side of the fireplace, the front door of the room being open, a body of electric fluid presenting a snake like appearance, came through the doorway, passing between him and Mrs Meriga, up the chimney. It then descended towards the ground, striking a stout clothes prop which it shivered into a hundred pieces, and bounding about fifteen feet struck a woman, who happily sustained more fright than injury, after which it dispersed itself in the earth, which it ploughed up some inches deep for four or five feet, and disappeared.[16]

Meriga held the license for the Athens Hotel in Daylesford from at least 1863.

In April 1863 he was in financial trouble:

NOTICE is hereby given that by an INDENTURE of CONVEYANCE and ASSIGNMENT, bearing date the fourth day of April, one thousand eight hundred and sixty-three, and made between ANTONIO GIOVANNI MERIGA, of Daylesford, in the Colony of Victor, a, hotel-keeper and Storekeeper, of the first part; WALTER SMITH, of Daylesford aforesaid Brewer and DAVID BELL, of Daylesford aforesaid Timber Merchant, of the second part ; and the several persons whoso names and seals are thereunto subscribed and affixed creditors of the said Antonio Giovanni Meriga, of the third part: The said Antonio Giovanni Meriga conveyed and assigned unto the said Walter Smith and David Bell all and singular his freehold lands and heredifament, chattels, real stock in trade, book debts, and all and other his real and personal property, cattle, and effects whatsoever, (necessary wearing apparel only excepted) upon trust for the benefit of his creditors, as therein mentioned, and that the said assignment was duly executed by the said Antonio Giovanni Meriga, and by the said Walter Smith, and David Bell, in the presence of, and attested by William Edward Stanbridge. Esquire, one of her Majesty's Justices of the Peace for the said colony, and the said assignment, is now lying at the office of Stewart Tournay, solicitor, Camp street, Daylesford, for inspection and execution by the said creditors. Dated this fourth day of April, 1863. ANTONIO G. MERIGA. WALTER SMITH. DAVID BELL. Witness,— W. E. STANBRIDGE, J.P, a Justice of the Peace, in and for the colony of Victoria.[17]

In June 1863 he was the victim of a robbery when the hotel's cash box was stolen:

On Wednesday night, Mr. Meriga, of the Athens Hotel, missed his cash-box from its usual place, there being some £16 or more in it, at the time, besides some valuable documents. He suspected a female who had visited the hotel during the evening, and hastened to acquaint Detective Walker. That officer visited the abode of the supposed delinquent, and on searching the house carefully, at last discovered the stolen property. The handles were broken off the cash-box, showing that they had been endeavouring to break it open, in which, however, they were unsuccessful, not having had sufficient time to accomplish that act.[18]

In January 1871 Meriga testified at an inquest into the death of Joseph Jobb who was staying at his hotel. Meriga's wife was warned by the magistrate, and the jury had a suspicion that may may have been something Jobb drank at the hotel that caused his death:

At the hospital yesterday an inquest was held on the body of Joseph Jobb, who died at the institution on the previous day. From the Daylesford Mercury, it appears that the man called at the hospital on the 28th ult., and was treated as an out-patient but on the 29th he was brought back by Antonio Meriga in a cart. The patient was then raving, and apparently the worse for liquor, but he gradually sunk into a comatose state and died. Antonio Meriga said deceased had been working at Moore's soda water manufactury and had come to board at his (Meriga's) house on the 19th. Mrs. Meriga, on the other hand deposed that deceased had lived with her only three or four days, and had returned to the house about 6 p.m. on the 29th. The coroner cautioned the latter witness to be more careful in her answers, or she would be committed for prevarication. Dr. M'Gregor, the resident surgeon, who made the post-mortem examination, said the liver of deceased had the characteristic nutmeg appearance of a drunkard. The stomach was empty, and the brain congested, and witness believed death arose from the latter cause. In answer to a juror, both the Merigas, denied that they had sold grog to deceased, though they admitted having sent out for liquor. The jury having expressed a wish that the stomach of deceased should be tested by Mr. Johnson, the Government analytical chemist, the coroner adjourned the inquest till Monday.[19]

His eldest daughter married in December 1878:

HALINBOURG—MERIGA.—On the 11th inst, at the residence of the bride's friends, rear of Synagogue, Bourke-street west, by the Rev. Raphael Benjamin, Abraham, eldest son of George Halinbourg, of Hotham, to Susan, eldest daughter of S. G. Meriga (should be A. G. - Ed.), of Daylesford. Daylesford papers please copy.[20]

In April 1881, it was reported that Meriga had been evicted from his hotel (unnamed), and that James Tognini wanted to take over the hotel. Tognin's application was rejected and he took legal action against the Daylesford magistrates:

QUEEN V. TAYLOR, EXPARTE TOGNINI, Mr Williams renewed his application for a mandamus to compel the justices of peace at Daylesford, to adjourn, bear and determine, James Tognini on 22nd November last applied to the local clerk of Petty Sessions for an hotel license of a house which had been licensed since 1871, and was occupied by Antonio Meriga, who left the house on account of having received notice from the landlord to quit. The application by Tognini for a license was made on 8th December last before the local licensing bench, after having compiled with the required preliminary formalities. At the hearing the police objected to the granting of the license on the ground that the premises had fallen into disrepair. No notice whatever had been given to the applicant of such objection, and the magistrates refused to adjourn the hearing of the application, although it was pointed out by the applicant's solicitor that provision for such a case was made in the Licensing Act, 1876, and that disrepair of premises was not a good ground for refusing the application, that not being one of the statutory objections to the granting of a license, but only on an application for a renewal of a license under section 33 of the Act. The court granted the mandamus.[21]

After leaving Daylesford, Meriga and his family toured as a theatrical troupe[22]:

THE LYNDHURST TROUPE-The above variety troupe will appear at the Town Hall (Echuca) on Saturday night. On Tuesday and last night, the company gave successful vocal and musical entertainments at the hall, which were very well received by the audiences. Mr. Burbank, late of the famous Rainer's serenaders, will appear on Saturday night, when a good programme will be gone through. The playing of Mr. Lyndhurst on the violin, and that of Miss Meriga on the guitar, calls for the highest praise, and is deserving of hearty support.[23]

Still more recently - only last week, in fact - another vocalist appeared; a handsome Jewess, accompanied by her father, who informed me he was from the now busy island of Cyprus, though it is many years ago since he left it. The young lady Miss Meriga by name - sings very prettily indeed, though her voice is not powerful; she confines herself therefore to "drawingroom entertainments," in which she was greatly admired by a select circle of the Charleville Upper Ten, who were inside; and the Lower Twenty, who were outside. Miss Meriga accompanied herself on the guitar, which the Lower Twenty designate a "banjo;" she was also accompanied by a violin by a very fair player, which the same twenty call by the exploded name of fiddle.[2]

The "Meriga Family" the leading artistes of which are Misses E. and R. Meriga, have been doing good biz. in the Variety line at Thorn & Rains's store, Normanton. They gave a ben. to the Burke District Hospital; net proceeds over £27.[24]

They settled in Normanton in north Queensland and operated the Criterion Hotel.[9][22].

A description on Meriga's hotel in Normanton in 1889:

"...whilst the hotels are also numerous and well kept, Hely’s, O’Shaughnessy’s, Rafferty’s, and Davis’ being amongst the principal ones, but I must not forget to mention the hotel kept by the Meriga family, it being quite an institution in Normanton, and received a very suggestive appellation in the olden days when residents and visitors did not care to walk too far for a “nip,” as in consequence of its being fully a quarter of a mile from the nearest house of entertainment they found that the walk made them so excessively thirsty that it was unanimously christened “the dry stage,” a title it still retains to the present day; and between ourselves, there are many worse ways of passing away an hour than a visit to the above place in the evening, as in the first instance, you have an opportunity of cultivating a thirst that you would not sell to a lushington for less than a “fiver,” and secondly, there are two of the nicest and brightest girls one could wish to meet, ever ready to entertain visitors with a musical treat such as one rarely hears, and certainly never expects, in such an out-of-the-way place..."[25]


Meriga's wife, Miriam, died on 13 March 1889[26] in Normanton:

MERIGA. —On the 13th inst., at Normanton, North Queensland, Miriam, the beloved wife of A. G. Meriga, late of Daylesford, and mother of Mrs. A. Halinbourg, North Brighton. May her soul rest in peace.[27]

Meriga died in Normanton on 19 October 1896[22]:

Mr. A. G. Meriga, who has been a resident of Normanton for fourteen years, was buried yesterday. He was 76 years of age.[1]

After his death, his son Samuel took over the hotel until his death on 2 May 1897:

Mr Samuel Meriga, the proprietor of the Criterion Hotel at Normanton, died in the hospital on Sunday from dengue fever.[28]

His youngest son Morris was married in Perth in 1905:

MERIGA--BIRCH.-On June 28, at St. Mary's Church, West Perth, by the Rev. E. Makeham, Morris, youngest son of A. G. Meriga, Victoria, to Elvira F. W., only daughter of Richard and Margaret Birch, of Bunbury, Western Australia.[29]

The will[edit | edit source]

In 1903, Meriga's children challenged the validity of a will which his son Samuel's widow used to claim the estate. The case was heard in the Supreme Court:

MERIGA v. BUTLER. ("Townsville Bulletin.") This was an action, by Elizabeth Crystal Meriga against Mary Ellen Butler, over the validity of an alleged will of the late Antonio Giovanni Meriga, of Normanton, held by the defendant. Mr. Jameson (instructed by Mr. Wilson, of Messrs Hobbs, Wilson and Buchanan), appeared for the plaintiff. There was no appearance on behalf of the defendant. The statement of claim set out that the plaintiff was a daughter and one of the next of kin of Antonio Giovanni Meriga, hotelkeeper, who died intestate at Normanton on October 19, 1896. She claimed to have a grant of administration of the real and personal estate of the deceased equally with the other next of kin, namely, two sons and two daughters. The defendant had entered a caveat and claimed to be the widow of Samuel Meriga, eldest son of the deceased, and that the deceased left a will dated April 12, 1890, whereby he appointed the said Samuel Meriga sole executor thereof. The plaintiff denied the validity of this alleged will.

The defendant had entered a defence and counter claim, in which she said that the will left by the deceased, after giving and bequeathing certain legacies, bequeathed all the remainder of his real and personal estate to his son Samuel, his heirs, executors, and assigns absolutely, and appointed him sole executor. The deceased was of sound mind and understanding, and the defendant claimed grant of administration with the will annexed to her of the lands and goods of the deceased. In the joinder of issue the plaintiff denied the statements in the defence, and that the deceased made or executed a will on April 12, 1898, or on any other date.

The will in question had been filed. In it the deceased purported to give and bequeath to each of his four children, Giovanni Meriga, M. L. D. Meriga, Elizabeth Crystal Meriga, and Rachel Crystal Meriga, the sum of £100 each, such legacies to be payable or paid before the expiration of two years from and after his decease, and then to be raised as provided out of any property left by him (or the increment thereof), other than allotments Nos l and 2 of section No. 38, in the town of Normanton, which be directed should be kept undisposed of and unencumbered for such period of two years at the least, subject to the legacies aforesaid. All the remainder of the estate and effects were bequeathed to his son Samuel, his heirs, executors, administrators, and assigns, and the said Samuel Meriga was appointed sole executor. The document was signed with the alleged mark of the deceased, and was witnessed by "Wilton. Wood, solicitor, Normanton, John J. Cahill, his clerk."

Mr. Jameson read the statement of defence and counter claim. His Honor said if there was a will how could the plaintiff get a grant of administration? Mr. Jameson said the validity of the will was disputed. Due notice of the action had been given to the defendant, who was not, however, represented. His Honor: Why have not her solicitors come here? These papers are signed by T. B. V. Tarbart, solicitor for the defendant, Croydon. Mr Jameson said that no instructions had come to the local agents to appear. His Honor: The defence and counter claim is signed by Unmack and Connolly. Mr Jameson: They have no instructions to appear your Honor. His Honor: There is no money forthcoming I suppose. The defendant has ???? in a will which appears to be valid. It is signed by Wilton Wood, whose signature I know well. How can the court grant administration when it is ??? a will. Mr Jameson pointed out that everything possible had been done to get the defendant into court. She might prevent the granting of administration ???tely by continuing her present ????. Even if the grant was made ??? move to prove the will in solemn form. The plaintiffs side had a great deal of evidence in preparation for the matter to he dealt with. It would be most inconvenient to the plaintiff who had come from West Australia in connection with her father's estate. Mrs. Butler, the defendant, had been in the possession of the property ever since her first husband's death, and was doing what she pleased with it. If she had had the will all the time she should have had it proved, as the children of the deceased were, according to it, to receive £100. His Honor said she could have been compelled to prove the will, or to renounce probate and allow the plaintiff to take out letters of administration Mr. Jameson: We do not believe in that will. His Honor: Looking at it, it seems a good document. Mr, Jameson said no one of the name of John Cahill, one of the witnesses of the document, who was described as Mr Wilton Wood's clerk, could be traced. No one in Normanton seemed to have known him, and there was no record of Mr. Wood having a clerk of that name. The deceased always said he was going to leave his property to his children. There was some evidence that he deceased suffered from rheumatism, but it was confined to his legs. The will was attested with his alleged mark, whereas he could write a good hand. He had always opposed giving the hotel to his son Samuel, who continually pressed him for it: For the first time after 13 years this will was now produced. The plaintiff had issued a writ to get the defendant into court, and he did not think she should be put to any further expense in her efforts to secure the defendant's attendance.

Hii Honor: I want to know why the defendant's solicitors are not in this case. There are decisions in which it is held that they must go on with a case. Mr. Macnaughton, who entered the court at this stage, stated that the agents of the defendant's solicitor in Townsville had intimated to their principal that they would require to be supplied with funds in order to go on with the case. They asked for a very moderate sum to pay out of pocket expenses, which was not forthcoming. His Honor: Their principal might have the fees in his pocket at the present moment, and his client might think that the case is being defended. I won't give administration to-day. I will want to consider the matter. But I will take the evidence.

The registrar of the court, Mr. C. S Norris, then produced at the request of Mr. Jameson, and on the authority of his Honor, all the documents in the action up to the issue of the writ. Frank Hamilton, clerk for Messrs Unmack and Connolly, solicitors, Townsville, produced formal documents in connection with the case, and said that Unmack and Connolly were town Agents for Mr. Tabart, of Croydon, solicitor for the defendant. They had entered an appearance on the writ. William J. P. Magill, managing clerk for Messrs Hobbs, Wilson and Buchanan, solicitors for the plaintiff, produced papers containing advertisements relating to the application for letters of administration, and copy of memorandum of appearance on caveat, and other documents in the case.

Elizabeth Crystal Meriga, the plaintiff, deposed that she was a daughter of the late Antonio Giovanni Meriga who died in 1896. She was in Coolgardie W.A., at the time of his death She remained there up to December 3 last year, when she left to come to Queensland. She first heard of the alleged will held by the defendant from Mr Norris, the Curator of Intestate Estates Townsville, in June last. The reason she did not take proceed ings earlier was that she had not the money and could not come from West Australia. She was at service in West Australia, sometimes as barmaid and sometimes as housekeeper. By his Honor: When she heard of her fathers death in 1896 she wrote to her brother Samuel, at Normanton, from whom she got an answer. He did not give any information about the hotel, except that it was heavily mortgaged. He did not mention the will. By Mr Jameson: She destroyed the letter from her brother, amongst a lot of other correspondence. Her brother said in the letter that the property was mortgaged to Burns, Phil and Co. In 1890 she was in Normanton with her father, brother, and sister, her mother having died the previous year. They were living in a cottage next door to the hotel which her father owned. Her father suffered from rheumatism, but only in one foot. It never affected his hands. She kept his accounts. She always filled in the cheques and he signed them in a good legible hand. He never signed with a mark. She managed his money matters until she left at the end of 1894. Her brother Samuel went into the hotel in 1893. He asked her father many times for the hotel, and the latter always refused. Shortly before she went away her brother wanted her father to sign some paper making over the hotel to him but he would not. Her brother said he had nothing to live for if he did not get the property, and for two pins he would hit his father. She told him to be a man and not to hit their father, but to strike out for himself. Her brother was about 33 years of age at that time and was married. There was an overdraft of £10 or £12 on her father's account at the Bank of New South Wales when she left, and she paid it with her own money. She afterwards went to the office of Mr Lyons, the solicitor, who had drawn up a document for handing over the hotel to her brother, which her father would not look at. The next day the paper was presented to her father to sign, and he said he would sign nothing. She had heard her father say to her brother that he was going to leave something for his other children, and was not going to give him everything. She asked her father what about the hotel. He said there was £80 owing to Messrs Burns, Philp and Co., and that Sam had to pay that off as a rent of £1 a week. She asked what would be done when that was paid off. He said he would throw Sam and his wife out, as he hated the sight of the latter. Her brother had often spoken to her about the hotel, stating that he thought he, should have it, as he was married and living in it. She knew a man named "Black Aleck," to whom she heard her father say, "Aleck, if you lend me £200 I will make you over £2000 worth of property, as I want to get away." Sam said he would get the hotel if he could, as his father might make it over to a Chinaman. Neither her father nor her brother had ever mentioned anything about a will. In the two or three letters she received from her father while she was in West Australia he did not mention the will. She did not know a clerk named John J. Cahill in Mr Wood's office. As far as she knew there was only an office boy employed there. The property at the time of her departure for West Australia was worth about £800, inclusive of the furniture which was worth about £100. The value of the cottages, machinery, plant, horses, etc., in the estate, was about £630. She had heard nothing about the will or about any legacy to her. Her father made his money in travelling with his family as a theatrical troupe. They went to Normanton from Victoria.

Rachel Ellen Bourke, the wife of Denis O'Shea Bourke, a drover lately residing at Burketown, said she was the youngest daughter of Antonio Giovanni Merlga. She was living in Normanton in the year 1890, with her father. She had seen her father sign cheques with his signature, but never with a mark. She went away to live at Croydon, where she received letters signed by her father. She knew Mr. Wilton Wood in Normanton. He sometimes called at her father's hotel. She never knew him to have a clerk named Cahill in his employ. Her father often told her that ha would leave everything to his children. He never said anything to her about having made a will. She went to Croydon in 1889 and returned to Normanton in the same year. She went to Camooweal to get married in November, 1899, returning about two years afterwards. She stayed about a month in Normanton, on her return. She was at Normanton while her brother Sam was in the hotel. Her father told her several that he would not leave anything to him and his wife out of the hotel. The first she had heard about a will was from Mr. Magill, of Messrs Hobbs, Wilson and Buchanan. This closed the evidence.

Mr. Jameson asked that letters of administration be granted, subject to the administration bond being forthcoming. His Honor said that he did not in tend to grant letters of administration at that juncture. He would not say that the will was a genuine document or not. It had evidently been taken care of, as it was not soiled or dirty. He could not help the law, but must pay attention to the document before him. Mr. Jameson argued that the action ought to go by default, as the defendant had not come into court. That would leave her another remedy if she chose to take it. His Honor said he had never had a case like this one before. The fact that the deceased did not speak about a will may or may not mean anything. He had known cases in which persons had said they had made no will when all of time there was one in existence. Mr. Jameson said it was a very suspicious circumstance that the will was kept back for 13 years. His Honor: That might not affect its validity. What is there to show that the defendant knew about it till her husband died? l can hardly believe that is a forged document Mr Jameson: Everything points that way. His Honour said the document was carefully drawn up and written In a hand like that of a lawyer's clerk. The only inference to be drawn from the plaintiff's case was that the document was forged by Samuel Meriga and Mr. Wilton Wood. Mr Jameson: We say that Mr Wood's signature has been forged. His Honor: I do not believe it. If you ever saw his signature you would never have the slightest doubt that this is his.

Mr. Jameson, in the course of further argument said the defendant had been keeping the property all these years to which she had no right. He informed his Honor that the plaintiff had proposed to go back to West Australia after the case had been dealt with. His Honor said he would go into the matter and give his decision as soon as he could, no doubt some time next week, perhaps this week. If the plaintiff got administration she would have to give a bond securing the legal personal representatives of Samuel Meriga for his share In the property. As the property was said to be worth about £1300, his share, one sixth, would be something over £200. Court then adjourned, and the sittings concluded.[22]

The legal case continued in 1904 when Meriga's daughter in law tried to have the earlier court decision overturned:

Before His Honor Mr. Justice Chubb. Summons by application on the part or Mary Butler, wife of John Cyril Butler, of Normanton, for an order directing Elizabeth Crystal Meriga, of Townsville, spinster, to bring into the Registry of this honorable Court the letters of administration of the real and personal estate of Antonio Giovianni Meriga, late of Normanton, hotel-keeper, granted to her on the 28th December, 1903, pending the determination of an action for the revocation of the said letters of administration intended to be instituted by the said Mary Butler as plaintiff against the said Elizabeth Crystal Meriga, as defendant. Order: Amend summons by adding, "administratrix, etc," and to stand over for service upon E.C. Meriga. Messrs. Roberts, Leu and Barnett, appeared for the applicant, Mary Butler.[30]

The court upheld the rights of Meriga's children:

"...the action was tried before Mr. Justice Chubb without a jury, judgment being entered for the defendant, which judgment still remained in full force."[31]

Lost relatives[edit | edit source]

A final part of the family story appeared in the newspapers in June 1977 after the death of Meriga's granddaughter:

ESTATE of Beatrice Miriam Bourke, deceased, late of Home of Peace, Subiaco, formerly of 76 Newcastle Street, Perth, spinster, who died on August 4, 1975, hereinafter referred to as the deceased. Parents: Married 1891. Father: Denis O'Shea Bourke. Neither details of birth or death nor parents, etc, known. Mother: Rachel Bourke (nee Meriga), born 16-6-1865, died 8-7-1942. Her parents Antonio Giovanni Meriga and Mary Ann Meriga (nee Moss). Brothers and sisters known as at 16-6-1865: Susannah, 8 years old. Giovanni, 6 years old. Elizabeth, 4 years old. Samuel, 3 years old. Would any person whether they be uncles, aunts or any one claiming through them, please contact the Public Trustee, 565 Hay Street, Perth, quoting reference D224-76-TDI, in regards a claim which they may have in the estate of the deceased. Alternatively, would any person having any information concerning the where abouts of any person who could be one or more of the deceased's next of kin, please contact the Public Trustee at the above address quoting the above reference number. If there has been no response to this advertisement within two (2) calendar months from the date here of, the Public Trustee will pay this substantial estate to unclaimed monies.[5]

See also[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1896 'QUEENSLAND NEWS.', The Northern Miner (Charters Towers, Qld. : 1874 - 1954), 22 October, p. 2. , viewed 09 Mar 2019, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article79007278
  2. 2.0 2.1 1880 'UPPER WARREGO.', Queensland Times, Ipswich Herald and General Advertiser (Qld. : 1861 - 1908), 12 February, p. 4. , viewed 09 Mar 2019, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article122928516
  3. Australian Marriage Index, Victoria, 1857, Ref. No. 1423
  4. Australian Birth Index, Victoria, 1857, Ref. No.16236
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 1977 'Advertising', The Canberra Times (ACT : 1926 - 1995), 1 June, p. 24. , viewed 08 Mar 2019, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article110848360
  6. Australian Birth Index, Victoria, 1859, Ref. No. 14908
  7. Australian Birth Index, Victoria, 1861, Ref. No. 9110
  8. Australian Birth Index, Victoria, 1862, Ref. 14056
  9. 9.0 9.1 Australian Death Index, Queensland, 1897, Ref. No.000487, Page:17740
  10. Australian Birth Index, Victoria, 1864, Ref. No. 8146
  11. Australian Death Index, Victoria, 1864, Ref. No. 886
  12. Australian Birth Index, Victoria, 1865, Ref. No. 14789
  13. Australian Birth Index, Victoria, Ref. No. 21343
  14. Harris, Helen D., EMPLOYMENT APPLICATIONS, APPLICATIONS FOR EMPLOYMENT IN THE VICTORIAN GOVERNMENT IN THE 19TH CENTURY. https://helendoxfordharris.com.au/historical-indexes/employment-applications
  15. 1859 'Advertising', The Age (Melbourne, Vic. : 1854 - 1954), 22 November, p. 8. , viewed 08 Mar 2019, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article154881328
  16. 1859 'LATEST NEWS.', Mount Alexander Mail (Vic. : 1854 - 1917), 8 June, p. 3. , viewed 09 Mar 2019, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article199049999
  17. 1863 'Advertising', The Herald (Melbourne, Vic. : 1861 - 1954), 7 April, p. 2. , viewed 07 Mar 2019, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article244291888
  18. 1863 'COUNTRY NEWS.', The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957), 16 June, p. 6. , viewed 06 Mar 2019, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article6486592
  19. 1871 'THE COUNTRY.', The Herald (Melbourne, Vic. : 1861 - 1954), 5 January, p. 3. , viewed 07 Mar 2019, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article244809542
  20. 1878 'Family Notices', The Australasian (Melbourne, Vic. : 1864 - 1946), 28 December, p. 27. , viewed 09 Mar 2019, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article143003828
  21. 1881 'LAW COURTS.', The Herald (Melbourne, Vic. : 1861 - 1954), 6 April, p. 3. , viewed 07 Mar 2019, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article241324964
  22. 22.0 22.1 22.2 22.3 1903 'Supreme Court.', The North Queensland Register (Townsville, Qld. : 1892 - 1905), 23 November, p. 18. , viewed 07 Mar 2019, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article84417937
  23. 1876 'The Riverine Herald', The Riverine Herald (Echuca, Vic. : Moama, NSW : 1869 - 1954; 1998 - 2000), 6 July, p. 2. , viewed 09 Mar 2019, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article113584087
  24. 1884 'A Peep at the Shows.', Queensland Figaro (Brisbane, Qld. : 1883 - 1885), 19 July, p. 26. , viewed 08 Mar 2019, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article83674229
  25. 1889, 'SYDNEY TO CROYDON. (NORTHERN QUEENSLAND.) An Interesting Account of a Journey to the Gulf Country with a Member of Parliament. BY “SALTBUSH.” CAXTON” PRINTING WORKS, 247 GEORGE STREET, Sydney 1889, https://www.gutenberg.org/files/57437/57437-0.txt
  26. Australian Death Index, Queensland, 1889, Ref. No. 000572
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