Edward Keys

From Hotels of Ballarat
Edward Keys
Edward Keys
Born 1831
Easington, Gloustershire, England
Died May 1898
Occupation Blacksmith
Years active 1865-1898
Known for Surface Hill Hotel
Sales Yards Hotel (Geelong)
Millers' Arms
Home town Lucky Womans
Spouse(s) Mary Keys
Children Julia Maria
Alfred Edward
Mary Emma
Alison Catherine
Emily Vincent
Frederick George
  • Charles Keys (father)
  • Mary Ann Buck (mother)

Edward Keys was a publican in Ballarat, <1865-1898>.

History[edit | edit source]

Edward Keys was born c.1831 in Eastington, Gloucestershire, England.[1] He was working as a blacksmith at Lucky Womans in 1863.[1]

Keys married Mary Ratcliffe, the daughter of Frederick Royds Ratcliffe and Catherine Brown, at St. Pauls Church, Ballarat, on 19 November 1863.[1] Her brother Frederick Royds Ratcliffe and sister Caroline Frances Hager were also publicans in Ballarat. They had several children including[2]:

  • Julia Maria, Linton, 1865
  • Alfred Edward, Happy Valley, 1868
  • Amy, Happy Valley, 1870
  • Mary Emma, Linton, 1873
  • Alison Catherine, Linton, 1875
  • Emily Vincent, Linton, 1879
  • Frederick George, Linton, 1882

In December 1879, Keys was granted the publican's license in lieu of transfer for the Surface Hill Hotel at Linton.[3] His license was renewed in December 1881, 1882 and 1883.[4][5][6] In July 1884 Keys became a member of the Ballarat Licensed Victuallers' Association.[7]

In August 1892 Keys had taken the Sales Yards Hotel in Geelong, but fell foul of the new police magistrate:

The new police magistrate, Mr Patterson, holds that it is necessary that the fee of £2 must be made every day the temporary license is used. Since his arrival in Geelong he has enforced that view, and weekly applications for the temporary licenses have to be made. In the case of the sale yards room the license is required every Monday, but today through the action of Mr Patterson on Saturday morning grog selling at the sale yards will have to be effected "on the sly,"' and matters in connection with the Sale Yards Hotel in Geelong West have become complicated. Mrs Sarah Coates is the licensee of the hotel, and she has been in the habit, of holding the temporary license for the sale yards booths more than a quarter of a mile from the hotel. Recently, so it is understood, Mrs Coates parted with her interest in the hotel, through Messrs Hodges Bros, to Mr Edward Keys, late of Ballarat, but owing to the stringent clauses of the licensing Act, a transfer of the license from Mrs Coates to Mr Keys cannot be obtained until the Licensing Court sits. In the meantime Mrs Coates has left the hotel, but, to comply with the Act, she remains one day per week in the hotel, whilst Mr Keys is nominally her agent. On Saturday morning an application was made to Mr Patterson, P.M. for the issue of a temporary license to Mrs Coates to sell in the sale yards booth to-day. Mrs Coates did not appear at the court, but Mr Keys did. Mr Supt. Toohey, the licensing inspector, explained that Mr Keys was not the applicant for the temporary license, but was selling under Mrs Coates' license without having obtained the permission of the licensing magistrate for the district. Mr Patterson became very indignant and apparently unnecessarily angry. In reply to his question Mr Toohey stated that a transfer from Mrs Coates to Mr Keys had not taken place because the court had not held a sitting since Mr Keys had arranged with Messrs Hodges Bros, to take the hotel. Mr Patterson : "Well, if Mrs Coates has been away from her hotel 28 days her license can be cancelled. Mr J. Toohey: I know that, but Mrs Coates attends to the hotel once every week, and so gets over the difficulty. Mr Patterson: Oh, does she? Is that so? Mr Keys: Yes: she comes once a week and stops for the day. Mr Patterson: Who gets the profits"? Mr Keys: I do. Mr Patterson: "Well, on your own statement I shall refuse the application. You are not Mrs Coates' agent; you are either sly-grog selling or Mrs Coates is neglecting to carry on her license. I hope this matter will not be overlooked when the application for the transfer of the license is before the court. Mr Supt. Toohey : Oh. I shall not forget it, but Mr Keys is a respectable man from Ballarat, and I know nothing against him. Mr Keys ventured to say that he was not a sly grog seller,but was acting as Mrs Coates' agent because the court had not sat and he was unable to get a transfer of the license. Mr Patterson : You are not her agent; you say you get the profits. Well, I won't give you a temporary license. Mr Keys. I am not applying for it; Mrs Coates is the applicant. Mr Patterson: I don't care; I won't grant it. Mr Keys: "When can I get a license? Mr Patterson: If the other licensing magistrates are of the same opinion as myself you will never get it. You must have the court's sanction to carry on the hotel business. Adjourn the court.[8]

He was granted the license at the next court hearing, even though the police magistrate complained that the court had not been following the strict letter of the law:

Exception to this was taken by Mr Patterson who stated that the licensing- proceedings had been somewhat irregularly, carried out in Geelong. Permits to carry on the hotel business had been granted to persons who were not really and truly the agents for the licensees, and that had been done without the Licensing Court being consulted. He desired it to be publicly known that in future no such arrangements would be tolerated. The word "agent" meant that the person to whom the permit could be given was a servant really in the employment of the person applying for the transfer of the license...Mrs Sarah Coates applied for the transfer of her license for the Sale Yards Hotel in Geelong West, to Mr Edward Keys, lately a resident of the Ballarat district. Mr Price appeared in support of the application. Mr Supt- Toohey stated that there was no objection to the transfer and explained that the matter had been previously brought before the licensing magistrate for the district. Mr Patterson stated that he was well aware of it, and he had refused to grant the required permit, because Mr Keys was not the agent or servant of Mrs Coates. Mr Toohey stated that after the expressions of opinion by the Licensing Magistrate, Mrs Coates resumed possession of the hotel, and had remained there ever since. Mr Patterson replied that he knew it, and if she had not done so he would not have favored the transfer, but under the circumstances of there not being any objection by the inspector, the court would grant the transfer.[9]

His daughter Amy died in June 1895:

Last Saturday afternoon the remains of the late Miss Amy Keys, second daughter of Mr Edward Keys, the respected licensee of the Sale Yards Hotel in Geelong West, were buried in the New General Cemetery at Herne Hill. The funeral cortege was a lengthy one, the numerous friends of Mr and Mrs Keys exhibiting by their presence the sympathy felt for the family in their sad bereavement. The coffin was borne to the grave by Messrs A. and W. Toyne, C. Bromley, and W. Cherry, and the pall-bearers were Messrs J. Milnes, C. Cameron, J. Kennedy, W. Hall, J Toyne and A. Tulloch. The burial service was conducted by the Rev. W. Charles Pritchard, and the mortuary arrangements were carried out by Messrs W. B. King and Sons.[10]

In March 1896 Keys applied for the license for the Millers' Arms, but his application was rejected as he still held a license for a hotel in Geelong:

An unexpected difficulty arose yesterday at the quarterly sitting of the Licensing Court in connection with the application of Edward Keys for a transfer to him of the license of the Millers’ Arms hotel, Ballarat, from the present licensee, Robert Cummins. Mr Lazarus, who appeared in support of the implication, intimated to the court that Mr Keys was the holder of a license in Geelong, his efforts to dispose of his interest there having failed for the time being. He had concluded his negotiations for the transfer of the license of the Millers’ Arms hotel from Mr Cummins to himself in the full expectation of being able to satisfactorily dispose of his Geelong business, but as he had been unable to do the latter the difficulty had arisen. In reality the Geelong business had been disposed of, but the notices of intention to apply for a transfer had been lodged too late to admit of the application being granted. Mr Cummins in the meantime had left Ballarat and gone to Sydney for the benefit of his health, and as a transfer to Mr Keys was out of the question, Mr Lazarus asked that Mrs Keys should be appointed agent for Mr Cummins to carry on the business until a transfer could be effected at the next sitting of the court. He was enabled to make this application by reason of the fact that he also represented Mr Cummins. His Honor Judge Gaunt pointed out that if Mrs Keys were appointed agent Mr Cummins could not be made responsible in the event of any breach of the law being committed, for he was not present to make the application. Moreover, according to Mr Lazarus’ showing, Mrs Keys would in reality be merely acting for her husband who had already purchased the business. In view of these facts the court declined to grant the application.[11]

Keys died in May 1898:

KEYS. —The Friends of the late Mr Edward Keys (late of Lintons and Geelong) are respectfully invited to follow his remains to the place of interment, the Ballarat New Cemetery. The funeral cortege is appointed to leave his late residence, Millers' Arms Hotel, Doveton street north. This Day (Thursday), at 3.30 o'clock. JORDAN and TIPPETT, Undertakers, Armstrong street south (near City Hall), 28 Eyre street, and 14 Grant street.[12]

The funeral of the late Mr Edward Keys (of the Millers Arms hotel) took place yesterday afternoon, and was well attended. The remains were interred in the Ballarat New Cemetery. A beautiful collection of floral tributes was sent by friends. The following gentlemen were pall-bearers:—Messrs R. Hager, A. Hager, F. Ratcliffe, W. Ratcliffe, D. Ryan, W. Dean, J. B. Millington, J. Brown (representing Messrs P. and C. Papenhagen), and J. Morrison (representing the Eureka Aerated Water Company), and the coffin bearers were Messrs G. Bromley, W. Sherry, F. Medley, and R. Wilson (representing the Ballarat Brewing Company). The Rev. J, C. Carmichael conducted the service at the grave. Messrs Jordan and Tippett carried out the funeral arrangements.[13]

In November 1898 the license of the Millers' Arms was transferred from the executors of Edward Keys to Mary Keys.[14]

His wife Mary died in November 1915:

KEYS.-The friends of the late Mrs Mary Keys, widow of the late Mr Edward Keys, are respectfully invited to follow her remains to the place of interment, the Ballarat New Cemetery. The funeral will leave the residence of her son-in-law (Mr James Tait) corner of Doveton and Howard streets, Ballarat North this day (Tuesday, 2rd November), at 1.00 JORDAN and TIPPETT. Undertakers, &c. Armstrong St Sth. (nr. City Hall) and ?? Raglan st. sth. Tel. 79. F. W. Barnes and Son, proprietors.[15]

See also[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 KEYS, Edward, Victorian Marriage Certificate, 1863
  2. KEYS, Edward, 'Family Tree', ancestry.com, https://www.ancestry.com.au/family-tree/person/tree/77212669/person/48357995349/facts
  3. 1879 'POLICE INTELLIGENCE.', The Ballarat Star (Vic. : 1865 - 1924), 19 December, p. 4. , viewed 06 Nov 2019, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article199821847
  4. 1881 'TOWN COURT.', The Ballarat Star (Vic. : 1865 - 1924), 17 December, p. 4. , viewed 23 Dec 2017, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article202597624
  5. 1882 'LINTON ANNUAL LICENSING COURT.', The Ballarat Star (Vic. : 1865 - 1924), 13 December, p. 4. , viewed 16 Apr 2016, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article202700829
  6. 1883 'LINTON.', The Ballarat Star (Vic. : 1865 - 1924), 8 December, p. 4. , viewed 17 Apr 2016, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article201619589
  7. 1884 'BALLARAT LICENSED VICTUALLERS' ASSOCIATION.', The Ballarat Star (Vic. : 1865 - 1924), 9 July, p. 2. , viewed 21 Oct 2018, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article201115633
  8. 1892 'THE LICENSING ACT.', Geelong Advertiser (Vic. : 1859 - 1929), 8 August, p. 4. , viewed 21 Oct 2018, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article150769648
  9. 1892 'GEELONG LICENSING COURT.', Geelong Advertiser (Vic. : 1859 - 1929), 15 September, p. 4. , viewed 21 Oct 2018, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article150770178
  10. 1895 'TOWN TALK.', Geelong Advertiser (Vic. : 1859 - 1929), 17 June, p. 2. , viewed 21 Oct 2018, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article149937925
  11. 1896 'No title', The Ballarat Star (Vic. : 1865 - 1924), 12 March, p. 2. , viewed 21 Oct 2018, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article207482488
  12. 1898 'Family Notices', The Ballarat Star (Vic. : 1865 - 1924), 5 May, p. 3. , viewed 18 Aug 2022, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article215222734
  13. 1898 'OBITUARY NOTICES', The Ballarat Star (Vic. : 1865 - 1924), 6 May, p. 4. , viewed 21 Oct 2018, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article215222800
  14. 1898 'No title', The Ballarat Star (Vic. : 1865 - 1924), 17 November, p. 2. , viewed 25 Sep 2016, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article215233831
  15. 1915 'Advertising', The Ballarat Courier (Vic. : 1869 - 1882; 1914 - 1918), 23 November, p. 6. (DAILY.), viewed 21 Oct 2018, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article75158488

External links[edit | edit source]