Edwin Scrase

From Hotels of Ballarat
Edwin Scrase
Born 1817
Ringmer, Sussex
Died May 1884
Melbourne, Victoria
Occupation Brewer
Years active 1857-1871
Known for Specimen Hill Brewery
Scrase and Fry
Scrase and Co.
Scrase and Ainley
Charlie Napier Brewery
Home town Ballarat
Spouse(s) Kate Costello
Children Blanche (1860)
Ernest Edmund (1862)
Florence Maud Mary (1864)
Ada (1865)
Bertha Mary (1869)
Samuel Edwin
Charles Arthur
  • Edward Scrase (father)
  • Sarah Paine (mother)

Edwin Scrase was a brewer in Ballarat, Victoria, <1857-1871>.

History[edit | edit source]

Edwin Scrase was born c. 1817 and baptized at Ringmer, Sussex on 13 May 1817, the son of Edward Scrase and Sarah Paine.[1]

Scrase was the co-owner and operator of Scrase and Fry's Specimen Hill Brewery in Ballarat. He later operated Scrase and Co, Scrase and Ainley, and the Charlie Napier Brewery.

Scrase was elected to the first municipal council for Ballarat East in 1857:

THE MUNICIPAL ELECTION. THIS event which for a week or two past has been looked forward to with so much interest by the inhabitants of Ballarat East came off on Monday. At an early hour the streets were enlivened by the cars and cabs of the various candidates driving along with or for voters, and as the day advanced the bustle in this respect increased rather than diminished. The polling took place in the large room of the Charlie Napier, which was freely given for the occasion by the proprietor, Mr John Gibbs, who was one of the candidates. No fault can be found with the arrangements for voting, which were of a very satisfactory kind, and allowed the easiest ingress and egress to the various voters. The galleries were set apart to the onlookers throughout the day ; they were well filled, and towards the close of the poll they were crowded by a large and excited though peaceable assemblage. A good array of scrutineers and poll clerks were present to facilitate the business of the day, presided over by Mr Rodier, the Chairman of the Municipality. At the close of every hour, the State of the poll was made known, and long before the close it was evident to every one that Mr Munday Wilson would be at the head ; the second position was for a long while held by Mr John Isaacs, but late in the afternoon he was supplanted by Mr Belford, who continued to keep ahead till four o'clock. At that hour, Mr Rodier ordered the doors to be shut, and in a few minutes afterwards declared the candidates to stand in the following order :

  • Wilson : 440
  • Belford : 346
  • Isaacs : 328
  • Scrase : 318
  • M'Cleverty : 315
  • J. Gibbs : 289
  • R. B. Gibbs : 261
  • Dyte : 175
  • Hannon : 7

In stating the numbers polled for Messrs Scrase and M'Cleverty, the Chairman said, that though the figures given, placed Mr Scrase above his opponent, yet there was some difference in some of the other statements which, if correct, would alter their position. This, however, on enquiry was not found to be the case, and the figures now stand as we hare given them. The successful candidates, therefore, are Messrs Munday Wilson, Richard Belford, John Isaacs, and Edwin Scrase. A considerable crowd collected round the Charlie Napier, as the hour approached for the closing of tile poll, but all passed off quietly, and we heard of no disturbance arising from the day's proceedings. About 8 o'clock the official declaration of the poll was made by Mr. Rodier, and thanks were returned to the electors by some of the successful as well as unsuccessful candidates ; but a drizzling rain which was falling at this time, tended to shorten the speeches, and thin the number of listeners.[2]

January 1859 Scrase showed compassion for a drunk:

AN INTRUDER. Patrick Down was charged with being found on the premises of Mr Edwin Scrase. It appeared that the prisoner was a little the worse for drink, and the police said he was not at all a likely man to commit the offence, and Mr Scrase did not wish to prosecute the charge, the man was discharged.[3]

In November 1859, a neighbour took him to court to recover the cost of a fence:

Samuel Mullen v Edwin Scrase, action to recover £5, the value of a fence destroyed by the defendant. The plaintiff deposed that he bought a house on Specimen Hill, and he fenced in a piece of Crown land, which he held under a miner's right. The fence was pulled down. The wife of the plaintiff deposed that defendant pulled down the fence on Sunday last. Mr Scrase, called "the oldest inhabitant on the hill," who deposed that defendant had possession of the ground in dispute for the last seven years. Mr Lewis who appeared for the plaintiff, cross-examined "the oldest inhabitant" at much length with respect to certain right of ways in the district. Mr Scrase said he had been in the habit of using the place fenced in for the last four years, and on coming from Melbourne on Sunday last he was annoyed at seeing the fence up and kicked it down. Judgment postponed.[4]

He married Kate Costello in Victoria on 8 March 1860[5]:

On the 8th inst., by the Rev. J. G. Russell, of Buninyong, Edwin Scrase, Esq., of Ballarat, son of the late Edward Scrase, Esq, of Broyle Place, Ringmer, Sussex, to Kate, eldest daughter of John Costello, Esq., Edmonstown, Kilkenny, Ireland.[6]

They had several children including:

  • Blanche, 1860, Ballarat East.[7]
  • Ernest Edmund, 1862, Ballarat East.[8]
  • Florence Maud Mary, 1864, Ballarat East.[9]
  • Ada, 1865, Ballarat East.[10]
  • Bertha Mary (1869-1870)
  • Samuel Edwin
  • Charles Arthur

Scrase entered into a partnership with Edward Ainley, and changed the name of the Specimen Hill Brewery to Scrase and Ainley in March 1861.[11]

On 13 April 1863, a saddle belonging to Scrase was stolen from outside the brewery:

AUDACIOUS ROBBERY. - William Milkin was charged with having stolen a horse, bridle, and saddle the property of Edwin Scrase, of Ballarat East The prosecutor deposed, that on the evening of the 13th April his horse was tied to a post outside the Specimen Hill Brewery. All was stolen. Subsequently, the horse had been recovered, and the saddle witness observed now in Court. He never authorised any person to take the horse, bridle, and saddle. Witness was, informed by a person on Specimen Hill that he saw a man riding the horse away. The property stolen he valued at £40. Isaac Ross, barman at the Plough and Harrow Hotel, Warrenheip, deposed that he knew the prisoner. He had seen him before. The last time was on the 19th ult. The prisoner was then in the bar of the hotel. The prisoner had a bag with something in it, judging from its appearance. The prisoner said to witness that he had a saddle in the bag that he had purchased at Sebastopol on the previous night. The prisoner - I have not the slightest recollection of saying a word to you about a saddle. Alfred Brown, a carter from the Yankee Saw Mills, Bullarook, deposed that he knew the individual in the dock. He bought the saddle produced from him. He received the receipt (handed to the Bench) from the prisoner for the money paid for the saddle. Witness gave £1 12s for the saddle, which the prisoner said he got from Constable Carey at the Bullarook Camp. Before this the prisoner had informed witness that Carey had had a saddle of his in his charge. Detective officer Hyland deposed that he arrested the prisoner at the Devil's Creek, Bullarook. In reply to witness he said that he had not sold a saddle to "Brown the colored man", or any other individual. Took him to Brown, and then he acknowledged having sold it; but in explanation said he picked it up at Warrenheip. This was the case for the prosecution. The prisoner was committed for trial at the general sessions.[12]

In April 1865 a legal action was taken against Scrase for wrongful dismissal and assault. Scrase was Chairman of Ballarat's Sun newspaper, and had sacked the editor and had him forcibly removed from the building:

Edwin Scrase, chairman of the Sun Newspaper Company, deposed in corroboration of the allegations of absence and incompetency against the plaintiff, and of the decrease of expenses after the plaintiff's dismissal. The witness said that when complained of for absence, the plaintiff said he would come and go as he pleased. Crossexamined-We discontinued our country edition during the plaintiff's management, and O'Leary was appointed in Clark's place at £4 a week. I begin to know too much about newspapers. I never had anything to do with them till I became chairman of this company. We had it from good authority that Clark was not competent.[13]

In October 1865 Scrase was charged with assault in an early case of road rage:

On Monday, 2nd October, before Mr Thomas Learmonth, J.P., the following causes were called, viz.:-James Parker v Edwin Scrase, assault, damages laid at £10. Edwin Scrase v James Parker, riding on horseback on the wrong side of the main Avoca road. These cases were heard together. From the evidence it appeared that Parker, a contractor for the construction and maintenance of the road in question, was on 27th September, superintending the trimming of some water tables on the sides of a piece of metalled road near Mount Bolton, when Scrase passed along the road driving tandem. A dispute took place between the parties which resulted in a rather savage assault being committed with both ends of the tandem whip, by Scrase, on the horse ridden by Parker, and on the person of the contractor himself. There were no witnesses to this little affair, and the evidence of the two principals as to whether the tandem-trap had been improperly driven on the water-tables prior to the assault was extremely conflicting. After a patient hearing, the magistrate-in the absence of a second magistrate acting alone by consent of the parties-dismissed the case of Scrase v Parker, and in the assault case, made an order against Scrase for £2, and 5s costs. The magistrate at the same time remarked that in the latter case he had great doubts whether Parker had in the first instance addressed Scrase in a proper and civil manner, but as regarded the assault the defendant was in that position that he must well know his conduct was very improper and perfectly unjustifiable. Mr Parker requested that the amount awarded him as damages might be placed in the Ballarat District Hospital box.[14]

In December 1865 a newspaper advertisement offered his brewery for sale:

F. EVERINGHAM-On the premises, at 10 o'clock, the plant and stock, &c., of Scrase and Co., brewers.[15]

The public dispute between Scrase and Edward Ainley, his business partner in 1865, was mentioned in an article in the Star in June 1888:

The local commercial world was entertained 1865 by some published correspondence between Edwin Scrase and Edward Ainley, members of a brewing firm whose brewery was in Eureka street, near Main street. Scrase, the senior partner, had bought the Charlie Napier Theatre to use as a brewery, and at the same time a dispute arose between the partners, a dissolution took place, aud then there was a public washing of dirty linen in the local papers, because Scrase, annoyed at reports circulated, felt, as he said, “bound in justice to myself to publish the true cause of the dissolution.” His letters averred irregularities on Ainley’s part, Ainley pleaded in bar of such averments the award of arbiters Charles Seal, Robert Dunn, Frederick Moses Claxton, assisted by barrister Robert Walsh, who “ took evidence on oath,” and Scrase rejoined that the award was given on technical and "benevolent” grounds. But, amidst a whirl of rumors as to the cause of the dissolution, Ainley declared that “the real cause of our dissolution was BAD BEER.” To this Scrase replied— “What next ? If such is the case, I can only say that the public taste must be vitiated indeed, as I am brewing night and day to supply the numerous orders which I am receiving from all quarters.” This has a puffy flavor, but Scrase, who had most wit and the better command of English, gave a further thrust, saying, in conclusion—“It is just possible that the proverbial sympathy of a British public, always shown to one whom it considers has been wronged, may have caused this extraordinary demand for bad beer.” Ainley wound up by the declaration that he was disgusted at such treatment of the arbiters’ decision, and that, from sympathy expressed, “ the only regret seems to, be that I should have been met by such unscrupulous action.” There have been firm disputes before and since in Ballarat, but this was the only one brought prominently and verbosely under the public eye. Inspite of " the numerous orders,” Scrase’s change of place for his brewery was not lucky’. He was flooded out in one of the Eastern deluges, business fell off, and he had to throw the venture up. Thereafter he battled with hard times in Melbourne. Ainley also went to Melbourne, and had some unpleasant adventures, neither ever recovering the commercial position he had once enjoyed in Ballarat. Scrase’s ill-luck at the Charlie was also the herald of the utter failure of that place as one of either pleasure or profit, and soon after the time of Scrase’s departure the premises, whose foundations were laid with much display, as we shall see anon, were sold for a song, and the materials were carted westward, to be used in buildings in the City.[16]

His son Ernest died on 18 August 1866:

On the 18th August, at 112 Mair street, Ballarat West, of scarletina, Ernest Edwin, the only and much beloved son of Edwin and Kate Scrase, aged four years and four months.[17]

His infant daughter died on 20 April 1870:

Scrase. — On the 20th April, at the residence of her parents, Mair street, Bertha Mary, infant daughter of Edwin and Kate Scrase, aged 6 months.[18]

In March 1871 Scrase was again charged with assault:

Daniel Sweeney v Edwin Scrase—This was a summons case for assault on the 23rd instant, at the North Grant hotel Mr Watson appeared for Mr Sweeney, and Mr M’Dermott for Mr Scrase, Daniel Sweeney was first called, and said that he was a slaughterman and knew Mr Edwin Scrase, the brewer. He saw Mr Scrase on the 23rd of the present month, in the parlor of the North Grant hotel. It was late in the afternoon, and Mr Mark Gill, Mr E. J. Lewis, and Mrs Harris, the landlady of the hotel, were present. It was about five o’clock when he went into the back parlor of the North Grant hotel. Going in, he saw Messrs Mark Gill and E. J. Lewis and Mrs Harris. Mrs Harris was standing at the comer of the mantelpiece. The room was about 18 or 20ft. long, and he seeing Mr Scrase at one side of it, took his seat in the furthermost corner of the room and asked for something to eat. While he was waiting for it, Mr E. J. Lewis approached him and they had some conversation on the subject of Mr Murray’s funeral. While they were thus engaged Mr Scrase went over towards him and said, “You damned coward, you said you would strike me when next you saw me. Strike me now!” He had a knife open in his hand while he spoke brandished over his head (as shown by witness). He turned to Mr Scrase and said, “ Well, Scrase, do you think I am such a damned fool as to strike you with a knife in your hand.” Witness had a whip with him, but before anything could be done, those who were in the parlor interfered. He raised his whip and said to .Mr Scrase, “ Now, if you attempt to use that knife I will kill you.” At that time the knife was taken from Mr Scrase and the whip from him by Mr E. J. Lewis, and the whole were thrown in the fireplace. Witness had never spoken a word to the defendant before he came on, and was kicking up a great fuss, calling him a damned coward and a damned cur. Witness said to defendant, “ You boast of being an Englishman; is it acting the Englishman to raise, a knife to a man in the position in which you found me ?” -He then said he would fight, and it was proposed that it should be done without the knives and pistols, and such nonsense. (Mr, MDermott-—Just to have it out). Mr Scrase then said to him “your father is an old lag and you are a lag.” Witness replied “you lie.” Mr M'Dermott - This not a case of abusive language. Mr Watson—All must come out. Witness said to Mr Scrase “ you’re a liar, and I’ll punch your head for saying that.” Mr Mark Gill interfered at that juncture, and Mr E. J. Lewis was kind enough to hold his hands. - (Laughter.)- Mrs Harris, called, said that she was landlady of the North Grant hotel. She remembered the 23rd instant, at about five o’clock in the afternoon. Mr Scrase was then in the back parlor of her hotel, with Mr E. J. Lewis and Mr Mark GilL They were there on some business, and Mr Sweeney went in and asked for a glass of ale. While she was in the act of taking Mr Sweeney his change, she saw Mr Scrase approach with a knife in his hand and ask him if he (Sweeney) would not fight him. Mr Scrase was eating bread and cheese at the time. She did not wait any longer, for a row occurred. This was the case for the complainant. Mr M'Dermott said the case was a most unfortunate and had arisen out of a mistake which had been committed some time ago, and over which the parties now had an old grudge. Mr Scrase, from what he could make out of the case, was in the back, parlor of the hotel when Sweeney, evidently, he had no doubt, entered with the intention of having a quarrel with Mr. Scrase. Mr M'Dermott further laid before the court the facts of the case from his point of view, and then stated that he considered both parties should shake hands and “make up” the quarrel. He intended to call Mr E. J. Lewis, who he considered was an impartial witness, inasmuch as he was as good a friend to the knight of the willow as to the maker of what was called “sheoak.” Mr E. J. Lewis was then called, and said he had known both parties for many years. He had had occasion to go into the parlor of the North Grant hotel on business on the afternoon in question. Mr M'Dermott—You never go into a hotel, Mr Lewis, except on business. (Laughter.) He met Mr Scrase, and they were partaking of some bread and cheese, when Mr Sweeney arrived, in the room. Witness went to Mr Sweeney when he arrived and began to speak with him about the unfortunate case of the late Mr Murray being killed, when he saw Scrase get up from the table with a knife in his hand. The knife was a small one with which he had been cutting bread and cheese, and would not, he thought, hurt anybody. Mr Scrase said to the complainant, “You threatened to pistol me the next time you met me. Now do it; I am prepared for you.” He at once suggested to Mr Scrase to put down the knife. Mr Scrase threw the knife down, and witness took it up with another that was on the table, and gave both, with Mr Sweeney’s whip, to Mrs Harris to take away. He then made it his duty, small as he was, to go between and separate the two big men who were fighting, and settle the row. When the knife and other things had been taken out of the room the parties in the case jumped at each other. They caught hold, and then fell on the ground; Sweeney below and Scrase above. They had two chairs dancing upon them at their heads and feet. Witness tried to separate them, and caught hold of them while,they were down, and then Sweeney called out, “ do you mean English?”—he supposed as to why a man should be beaten when down. In the row witness never saw an attempt to use either the knife or whip. There was a show of violence, but witness did not think much harm was meant. Scrase said, “ you threatened to pistol me; now do it;” and held the knife up, but he was eating bread and cheese. When witness asked Mr Scrase to put down the knife, he at once did so. The row was a momentary occurrence, and he could hardly say positively what was done by each. This was the case for the defence. Mr Gaunt thought the case was one in which there might be an apology, both parties expressing their regret for what they had done, and shaking hands. Mr Watson was sure that might have been done if it had not been that Mr Scrase had used a knife; Mr Gaunt did not think the knife had been used with any determined purpose. Mr Scrase, at the time he had it in his hand, had just been eating bread and cheese. He thought both parties should shake hands. Mr M'Dermott proposed, on the part of Mr Scrase, that the parties should shake hands, and give each £5 to the hospital by way of penalty for having a row in public. (Laughter.). Mr Watson wished to repeat that but for the knife in the transaction Mr Sweeney would have made the matter up. Mr. M'Dermott wished to know if Mr Sweeney was afraid. Mr Watson said Mr Sweeney was not afraid and had not come to court for that reason.. But when a knife was used it might lead to the death of one or other of the parties. Suppose Mr Sweeney had got up and struck Mr Scrase at the moment —? Mr M‘Dermott —But Mr Lewis was there and would have bundled both out. (Laughter.) Mr Rodier thought the whip a more murderous weapon than the knife, and thought the question was the binding over of parties to the peace. The case not being amicably settled, Mr Gaunt said ; he would be obliged to deal with it. He fined Mr Scrase £5, with £1 1s costs, with the alternative of fourteen days’ imprisonment.[19]

In October 1871 Scrase had moved to Melbourne where he set up a new brewery:

One might almost imagine that with the number of old-established breweries in and about the city there was but little or no prospect for a new comer, but as in every other trade competition always leaves the gate open to enterprise where that enterprise is vigorously followed up. In this respect Mr Edwin Scrase, late of Ballarat, has an advantage, and having bidden Ballarat an adieu for a time at least, and the Charlie Napier Brewery as well, he has with his usual spirit of enterprise set about raising his flag in Melbourne in the brewing line, and has secured most central and suitable premises in Lonsdale street, near the corner of William street, where in ten days or so more he will have his brewery in-full swing. It is almost only the other day that Mr Scrase settled for his lease of the premises, and now he has the necessary vats nearly all prepared, boiler of ten horse-power built in, and things brought into a fair ship shape way to commence work. The building he has leased is of bluestone, is 100 feet long by about 35 feet wide, comprising two flats, the underground stores being brought into trim for holding the casks, the brewing being carried on in the story above. The plant will be of the usual description, with the exception probably that the cooling apparatus will be on a new principle which has been adopted with the view of saving space, and is an invention of Mr Scrase’s own. His plant will enable him to turn out thirty-five hogsheads per day, and with a good connection, his ale is likely to make itself known in the city. The Ballarat market is also in tended to be supplied to a certain extent with the best, quality of ale, so that when Mr Scrase has his establishment fairly opened, his old Ballarat customers may be enabled to be supplied from here. As a novelty in boilers, Mr Scrase intends having a bell attached to the boiler which, when the water gets, rather low, will be made to ring. The novelty is one of his own inventing, and he fully expects to get it to work well; however, that will be seen when it has been tried.[20]

A few months later Scrase was forced to declare his insolvency:

Edwin Scrase, brewer, Melbourne. Causes of insolvency : Having commenced business on borrowed capital, with promises of support, which were not realised. Liabilities, £1181 12s 9d; assets, £281 10s ; deficiency, £900 2s 9d. Mr. Shaw, assignee.[21]

Scrase continued with his inventing, and in 1875 exhibited a shoe and knife polishing machine at the Melbourne Exhibition:

A little machine entitled the household help attracts a good deal of notice and admiration in the Exhibition. It is the invention of Mr. Edwin Scrase and is exhibited by the makers Andrew Bogle and Co. Its use is to clean and polish boots and knives—of course by means of different appliances. For shoe cleaning it has two horizontal circular brushes-one about 6in in diameter and hard, to clean the article operated on and another of about 18in in diameter armed with fine bristles to polish the shoe after blacking has been applied to it. The brushes are rotated at a very rapid rate by means of a pedal. By means of the machine a boot or shoe is polished bright in a few seconds. The knife polisher consists of a leather topped table of about 15in. in diameter on which there is a little grease to prevent the knives being scratched. On this a little fine emery powder is sprinkled when the knife being pressed firmly upon the table the latter is made to revolve rapidly by means of the pedal already mentioned and almost immediately the blade is shining bright. The process also sharpens the knife The machine appears to be extremely useful.[22]

His son, Samuel Edwin, was killed on 17 September 1891[23]:

SCRASE.-On the 17th inst., at Lilicur, killed through a gun accident, Samuel Edward Scrase, dearly-beloved eldest son of the late Edwin Scrase, brewer, Melbourne and Ballarat, aged 24 years 11 months. English papers please copy.[24]

Scrase died in May 1884:

THE Friends of the late Mr. EDWIN SCRASE are respectfully invited to follow his remains to their last resting place, Melbourne General Cemetery. The funeral will leave his late residence, Abingdon Villa, Simpson-street, East Melbourne, THIS DAY, at 2 o'clock. JOHN ALLISON, Undertaker, Simpson's-road Richmond.[25]

His brother Samuel died in 1893 and left his estate to Edwin's family:

Probate is being sought of the will of Samuel Scrase, late of 23 Darling street, South Yarra, gentleman, who died on the 15th August, leaving property valued at £3,500, of which £650 is realty and $3856 is personalty. The testator, by his will, dated February 24, 1893, Bequeaths £300 to his niece. Ada Scrase, in addition to her share of the residuary estate ; and the residual is left in trust to be divided equally among Kate Scrase, widow of the testators brother, Edwin Scruse ; his niece, Blanche Witton, wife of A. C Witton, of Kent street, Moonee Ponds, civil servant, his niece, Florence Maud Mary Clementson, wife of Edward Clementson, his niece, Ada Scrase; and his nephew, Charles A. Scrase, of 23 Darling-street, South Yarra, accountant.[26]

His wife Kate died on 27 October 1904:

SCRASE.—On the 27th October, at her residence, 23 Darling-street, South Yarra, Kate, widow of the late Edwin Scrase, in her 80th year.[27]

See also[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. Edwin Scrase, England, Select Births and Christenings, 1538-1975. Ref. No. 1067275
  2. 1857 'THE MUNICIPAL ELECTION.', The Star (Ballarat, Vic. : 1855 - 1864), 20 October, p. 2. , viewed 30 Aug 2018, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article66044804
  3. 1859 'EASTERN POLICE COURT.', The Star (Ballarat, Vic. : 1855 - 1864), 8 January, p. 4. , viewed 30 Aug 2018, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article66333244
  4. 1859 'EASTERN POLICE COURT.', The Star (Ballarat, Vic. : 1855 - 1864), 4 November, p. 2. , viewed 29 Aug 2018, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article72462951
  5. Australian Marriage Index, Victoria, 1860, Ref. No. 73
  6. 1860 'Family Notices', The Star (Ballarat, Vic. : 1855 - 1864), 16 March, p. 2. , viewed 29 Aug 2018, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article72465625
  7. Australian Birth Index, Victoria, 1860, Ref. No. 13721
  8. Australian Birth Index, Victoria, 1862, Ref. No.12225
  9. Australian Birth Index, 1864, Ref. No. 383
  10. Australian Birth Index, Victoria, 1865, Ref. No. 408.
  11. 1861 'Advertising', The Star (Ballarat, Vic. : 1855 - 1864), 8 March, p. 3. , viewed 30 Aug 2018, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article66337810
  12. 1863 'EASTERN POLICE COURT.', The Star (Ballarat, Vic. : 1855 - 1864), 5 May, p. 4. , viewed 03 Sep 2020, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article72556743
  13. 1865 'COUNTY COURT.', The Ballarat Star (Vic. : 1865 - 1924), 8 April, p. 1. (SUPPLEMENT TO THE BALLARAT STAR), viewed 29 Aug 2018, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article112885903
  14. 1865 'POLICE.', The Ballarat Star (Vic. : 1865 - 1924), 3 October, p. 3. , viewed 30 Aug 2018, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article112879341
  15. 1865 'Advertising', The Ballarat Star (Vic. : 1865 - 1924), 13 December, p. 3. , viewed 30 Aug 2018, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article112865708
  16. 1888 'BALLARAT CHRONICLES AND PICTURES.', The Ballarat Star (Vic. : 1865 - 1924), 25 June, p. 4. , viewed 30 Aug 2018, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article209443716
  17. 1866 'Family Notices', The Ballarat Star (Vic. : 1865 - 1924), 20 August, p. 2. , viewed 30 Aug 2018, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article112864451
  18. 1870 'Family Notices', The Ballarat Star (Vic. : 1865 - 1924), 21 April, p. 2. , viewed 30 Aug 2018, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article219307900
  19. 1871 'POLICE.', The Ballarat Star (Vic. : 1865 - 1924), 28 March, p. 4. , viewed 30 Aug 2018, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article197561488
  20. 1871 'MELBOURNE.', The Ballarat Star (Vic. : 1865 - 1924), 23 October, p. 4. , viewed 30 Aug 2018, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article197573613
  21. 1872 'NEW INSOLVENT.', The Herald (Melbourne, Vic. : 1861 - 1954), 8 February, p. 3. , viewed 29 Aug 2018, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article245700365
  22. 1875 'THE EXHIBITION.', The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957), 1 October, p. 7. , viewed 30 Aug 2018, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article7421043
  23. Australian Death Index, Victoria, 1891, Ref. No. 8805
  24. 1891 'Family Notices', The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957), 19 September, p. 1. , viewed 29 Aug 2018, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article8622945
  25. 1884 'Family Notices', The Age (Melbourne, Vic. : 1854 - 1954), 16 May, p. 7. , viewed 30 Aug 2018, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article193390705
  26. 1893 'WILLS AND ESTATES.', The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957), 9 September, p. 5. , viewed 29 Aug 2018, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article8689365
  27. 1904 'Family Notices', The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957), 28 October, p. 1. , viewed 30 Aug 2018, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article10347553

External links[edit | edit source]