Redan Club Hotel

From Hotels of Ballarat
Redan Club Hotel
Source:John Hargreaves
Town Ballarat
Street Cnr. Skipton and Darling Streets
Closed 1908
Known dates 1869-1908

The Redan Club Hotel was hotel in Ballarat, Victoria, <1869-1908>.

Site[edit | edit source]

The hotel was on the intersection of Darling Street, Skipton Street and Drummond Street, on the south west corner. It was close to the Darling Street Depot of the Ballarat Tramways and the hotel stables were used for stabling the horses used to pull the trams.[1] The site in 2021 was a Tyrepower store.

Map[edit | edit source]

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Background[edit | edit source]

History[edit | edit source]

In October 1869 the publican was charged with keeping a disorderly house:

Police v Jas. Lyons, allowing disorderly conduct in his licensed house, the Redan Club hotel, by permitting music and dancing to be carried on there on Sunday morning. The case was dismissed, as the case had been improperly brought into court.[2]

In August 1870, a thief broke into the hotel through a bedroom window:

A very impudent robbery was committed at the Redan Club hotels kept by Mr D. Fern, on Friday morning. At about one o’clock in the morning two miners who knew Fern passed the hotel and saw the window of Fern’s bedroom open. Thinking that he must have fallen asleep and forgot to shut the window they knocked at the door, when a man jumped out of the window and made off in the direction of Sebastopol. Mr and Mrs Fern, who were fast asleep, were then aroused, and it was found that the robber had entered the bedroom by slipping back the catch of the window. He must then have passed the bed where Mr and Mrs Fern were sleeping, and taken a bunch of keys and some silver from the pocket of Mrs Fern’s dress, which was hanging up behind the door. These keys had then been taken off the ring and arranged on the top of a chest of drawers. The top drawer, in which there was the sum of about 30s had been opened, and at this stage of his proceedings the thief must have been disturbed, for he made off, only taking with him the silver from Mrs Fern’s pocket. In the drawer below that which the thief last opened were about £140 in cash.[3]

In March 1877 the publican was charged with Sunday trading:

A charge...was brought against Thomas Shannon, landlord of the Redan Club hotel, which was dismissed for want of evidence.[4]

In December 1877 the police objected to the renewal of Thomas Shannon's license on the grounds that the hotel was dilapidated and badly furnished. The case was adjourned for two weeks.[5]

On 9 October 1878 the publican, Eugenie Ansaldi, alleged she was raped by a customer at the hotel:

ALLEGED RAPE. At the City Police Court yesterday, Colin Campbell was charged with assaulting Eugenie Ansaldi and committing a rape upon her on the 9th instant. Mr Gaunt appeared for the accused. The court was cleared during the hearing of the case.

Eugenie Ansaldi deposed that she was a widow. On the 9th instant she kept the Redan Club hotel, Sebastopol. Witness deposed that she knew the prisoner, and about nine o'clock on the evening in question he came into the hotel and got a glass of beer. Prisoner then asked for something to eat, stating that he had just come from Ballarat. Witness told him to go into a small room off the bar, and prisoner had some supper there. Witness then had a glass of beer with prisoner, and prisoner gave her £1. Witness returned him the change, and prisoner asked for a bed, stating that he lived at the Waterholes. Witness said it would not be far to go home, and she had not a spare bed. Prisoner then said that he would give her £1 if she would let him sleep there. Witness told him that be ought to be ashamed of himself, and ordered him to go home. Prisoner refused to do so, and pulled her into the bedroom. Witness told him to stop a minute until she shut up the bar, as she expected her son. Prisoner let her go, to do so, and witness went out and ran towards the police camp, which was opposite her premises. Prisoner came out of the bedroom, ran after her, and caught her in the middle of the street. When prisoner caught hold of her she screamed out for the police, and prisoner used very vile language towards her. He than commenced to pull her back towards the house, and when she continued calling out for the police, put his hand over her mouth, and struck her in the face and on the body. Prisoner knocked her down in the bar, and then committed a capital offence upon her. Previous to this prisoner had shut the front door. There was no other person in the home at the time. Prisoner then ran away. Witness then closed the house up. Next morning she related the affair to Mr Ditchfield, and also spoke to the police. Witness then showed several marks on her arms occasioned by prisoner's violence. Prisoner was dressed in the same clothes then as now. Witness had no doubt of his identity.

Cross-examined— Witness left the Redan Club hotel immediately after the above affair taking place. The present licensee (Williams) came into the hotel about a week ago. Witness knew Thomas Turner by sight. Turner and Williams were in the Redan Club hotel the other night. Witness was speaking to them. She did not tell them that the wanted to settle the case. Williams told her on another occasion that he would give her £10 to do so. She did not say she wanted £2 to settle the matter, or else the money she had had to pay away herself. On the following day witness told Williams she was going to Sebastopol. She denied having asked Williams to send to prisoner's father to say she wanted £10 to settle the case. There was a wooden house next the Redan Club hotel and a draper's shop opposite. Witness was playing cards with prisoner, after he had his upper, for two glasses of beer. Witness did not scream when prisoner pulled her into the bedroom. She did not scream when in the middle of the road or throw herself down. Witness struck her in the face and on the arms, and hurt her mouth. Witness was so exhausted that she was not able to cry out when prisoner was committing the offence. Witness did not think her dress was torn. It was about ten o'clock when prisoner went away. Several people knocked at her door after she closed the house, but she did not open for them. On the morning following the outrage, after seeing Mr Ditchfield, witness went to the Redan police camp at about nine o'clock. Witness saw two police men. Witness then asked for an adjournment of the case for a week, in order to get her head right, as owing to the beating she had received from prisoner, she hardly knew what to say. Witness then gave some further unimportant testimony, which closed her evidence.

Dr Bunce deposed that he examined Mrs Ansaldi on the night of the 10th instant, at the Redan Club hotel. There was a bruise on the left thigh, and both rides of her face were bruised. There were also bruises on both forearms, apparently eight or ten days old. Cross-examined— There were no marks of violence on Mrs Ansaldi that would lead him to suspect the committal of a capital offence, and in the absence of these he would consider the committal of the offence improbable. Edward Hinchcliffe, laborer, residing in Windermere street, deposed that he want into the Redan Club hotel on Thursday morning, the 10th instant, between ten and eleven o'clock. Witness saw Mrs Ansaldi, who made a certain complaint to him. Witness saw blood on the floor. Mrs Ansaldi's face was quite black.

Timothy Riordan, constable, stationed at Redan, deposed that on the evening of the 10th instant he received information with regard to the alleged rape, in consequence of which witness arrested prisoner at his house. Prisoner admitted being at the Redan Club hotel or the previous night. Witness told him that he would have to go before Mrs Ansaldi, and they then went together to her. Mrs Ansaldi identified prisoner as the man who had been at her hotel on the previous night. Prisoner said, "You are the cause of it ; you caught me to throw me out". Witness then locked prisoner up. Witness deposed that he did not go to bed until eleven o'clock on the previous night. He heard no screaming. Witness could have heard it, if it had taken place in the middle of the road. Witness stated that Mrs Ansaldi informed him she did not go to the police station till Thursday morning because she was too afraid to do so. Witness saw the clothes which Mrs Ansaldi wore on Wednesday. They were not torn. Witness spoke to Mr Ditchfield, who stated that Mrs Ansaldi had not mentioned anything to him of the outrage committed upon her; consequently he had not brought him as a witness. Constable Boyle deposed that he first heard of the affair from Mr Ditchfield shortly after two o'clock.

This closed the evidence. The bench then retired for deliberation, and on returning, prisoner was committed to take his trial at the next Court of Assize, to be held on the 21st of October. Bail was allowed to prisoners own surety of £100, and two sureties of £100 each.[6]

In October 1878 H. G. Williams was advertising he had taken over the hotel:

H. G. WILLIAMS, late of the Mount’s Bay and St. George’s Hotels, begs to announce that he has taken the REDAN CLUB’HOTEL, and hopes to meet all his old friends, and to make as many new ones as may favor him with a call. All liquors are guaranteed of the best quality. Note the Address—Sebastopol road and Darling street.[7]

The hotel was offered for auction on 5 March 1888, and the hotel's position near the tramway, and close to the Miner's Racecourse were promoted.[8] A description in 1907 noted that some of the accommodation was in a detached cottage, not in the main building.[9]

The property was passed in at the auction, as it did not reach the reserve price:

Messrs Freeman and Crabbe report having offered the Redan Club hotel yesterday, at the corner of Skipton, Darling, and Drummond streets. There was a large attendance and the bidding, which was brisk, started at £1200. The property was, however, passed in for private sale, the highest hid, £1425, not reaching the reserve, £1500.[10]

There was a fire at the hotel in March 1891:

I BEG to THANK the Atlas Fire Assurance Company of London for the Prompt settlement of my Claim (for loss by fire which occurred to my property on Thursday last), through their agents, Messrs Blight and Hager. John Walshe, Redan Club hotel.[11]

In October 1906, the publican, Elizabeth McAllester, was fined for allowing gambling on the premises:

At the City Police Court yesterday, before Messrs W.Dickson, P.M., G. K. Coutts, and T. Bodycomb, J.’sP.’, Elizabeth M'Allester, licensee of the Redan Club Hotel, was charged with permitting persons to play an unlawful game, on her premises ,on the 14th inst. Inspector Balchin prosecuted and Mr J.B. Pearson appeared for the defence. Senior-Constable Perry, of Redan, stated that on the 14th inst., at 12.50 a.m., he visited the defendant's hotel in company with Sub-Inspector Balchin and Constables Hooley, and Milne. Through a window, he could see men shaking dice, and see money on the table. Subsequently, witness and his companions gained entrance, and found 11 men sitting round a billiard table, and six of them were shaking dice. Sub-Inspector Balchin asked the licensee why she allowed gambling on the premises. She denied that any gambling had been going on. Constable Hooley gave corroborative evidence. Mr Pearson said that there was no evidence that the dice box produced belonged to his client. There was a defence if his client wished to go on with it, but he had been instructed to admit the offence. A fine of £5, with 6s costs, was inflicted.[12]

In September 1907, McAlister was again in court on a charge of Sunday trading:

Elizabeth M'Allister, licensee of the Redan Club Hotel, was charged at the city court on Monday with Sunday trading, and several miners were proceeded against for being found in the public house without lawful excuse. The licensee was away from home on the day in which the alleged offences were committed, but her son and daughter were in charge of the hotel. It was stated for the defence that of the men found on the premises one was a lodger and that the others had called on him to arrange matters concerning a tribute. What ever drink the lodgers had in their bedrooms in the cottage, a detached building, had been supplied on the Saturday night. Just before closing time a round of drinks had been taken to the cottage on a tray. Constable Hooley gave evidence that two of the men admitted they had called at the hotel for drink. The hearing of the charges occupied considerable time, and finally the bench accepted the defence and dismissed the cases.[13]

In April 1908 the License Reduction Board held a hearing into the hotel's license:

REDAN CLUB HOTEL. The owners are the Ballarat Brewing Company, and the licensee Elizabeth M’Allester. Mr J. B. Pearson appeared for both parties. Licensing-Inspector Balchin said that the Redan Club was in class “B.” There was one previous conviction for unlawful gaming. It was a wooden building, in fair repair, and had been conducted well during the past twelve months. In his opinion the house could be closed without causing inconvenience. The rent was 35s per week, and the assessment was £80 per year. To Mr Pearson—The hotel was in a populous locality. It was a better building than the Atlantic or Western Ocean.

Constable Hooley said that the Redan Club Hotel was not required, seeing that there were four hotels within a quarter of a mile. He corroborated the inspector’s evidence as to the conduct of the hotel. To Mr Pearson—The Trades Union, Western Ocean, Family, Atlantic, and Redan Club were all within a quarter of a mile. Any four of the five would be enough for public requirements, and it would not matter, as regards convenience, which one of the five was closed. To the Chairman—The trade done at the hotel was partly local and partly wayside. The Miners’ Racecourse was in the neighborhood., Meetings were held there once a month. there by cab and tram. The nearest point on the tram line to the course was at the Atlantic Hotel. Senior-Constable Evans said that the Globe and Trades Unions Hotels from outside appearances were better buildings than the Redan Club. The neighborhood of the latter was the most thinly populated part of Redan. There was a Methodist Church opposite the Redan Club. To Mr Pearson—He had not been through the hotels referred to, and did not know what they were like inside. The population round the Redan Club might be thicker, than found the Atlantic.

Mr Pearson said that the Redan Club Hotel was in a most busy neighbor hood, which was very thickly populated. On the evidence of both, the inspector and Constable Hooley, it was a better building than the other houses the vicinity. William M. Acheson, legal manager, said that in his opinion the Redan Club Hotel was necessary for the convenience of the public. He considered it the most suitable and centrally situated hotel in that locality. J. A. Blight said that the Redan Club was in a busy thoroughfare, and a lot of traffic to the cattle yards went past there. The vicinity was very thickly populated. He believed it was the most suitable hotel in the neighborhood.

John Ditchfield, grocer, corner Drummond and Skipton streets, said that the Redan Club Hotel was in a thickly populated neighborhood. A lot of traffic to the cattle yards and racecourse passed by the door. There were very few empty houses in the locality. To Inspector Balchin—He certainly thought the Redan Club the most centrally situated of the hotels in that locality. Edward E. Hobson, contractor, 610 Skipton street, produced a plan of the interior of the hotel, showing the dimensions of the rooms. Elizabeth M’Allester, licensee of the Redan Club Hotel, said the house was situated at the junction of four streets. There was a steady business done, partly local and partly wayside. She supplied meals to the public. There were five bedrooms for the use of the public. There were a number of business places close to the hotel. A quoit club played in the yard, and there was a billiard table in the dining room. The rental was 35s per week. Judgment was reserved.[14]

In May 1908 the hotel was included on a list of 47 hotels to be delicensed by the License Reduction Board.[15] At a compensation hearing in September 1908 the value of the hotel was discussed:

REDAN CLUB. Owner, Ballarat Brewing Company; licensee, Mrs Elizabeth M'Allister. Alexander Hunter, City valuer, said the hotel was situate at the comer of Skipton and Darling streets, in the Ballarat West licensing district. It was a wooden building, and in good repair. In 1904-5 the municipal valuation was £83, and the rental 40s, and in 1906-7-8 £80, and rent at 35s and rates. Used as a shop and dwelling he thought a weekly rental of from 12s 6d to 15s would be a fair one. The values of land in the district were unreliable; but he thought £1 per foot could be obtained for the land on which the hotel was situate. Frank Besemeres thought £2 a week a reasonable rental, and £1100 a fair capital value, while he would value the land at £2 a foot. De-licensed the value would be £325. William Albert Drew said he estimated the capital value at £1500. He would expect a rental of £104 per annum, and thought 14½ years a reason able purchase. De-licensed £26 was a fair yearly rental. He agreed with the previous witness regarding the price of the land. Thomas Jordan, accountant, and Mr McAllister gave evidence regarding the amount of liquor sold. The decision was reserved.[16]

After closing[edit | edit source]

In September 1912, there was a fire in the unoccupied hotel building:

FIRE IN REDAN. Shortly before midnight the City Fire Brigade were called out to a fire, at the Redan Club Hotel, a twelve-roomed weatherboard house, owned by Mr Carthew, butcher, of Skipton street. The firemen were promptly in attendance, and effected a good save, only two rooms being gutted. The house had not been occupied since it was closed by the Licenses Reduction Board. No particulars could be obtained concerning insurance, but, under the circumstances it is not supposed that the premises were covered. Nothing is known, as to the origin of the fire.[17]

Community Involvement[edit | edit source]

  • May 1879, South Ward branch of National Reform League.[18]
  • May 1883 - Farewell dinner for John Pearce jun., auditor and later director of Williams' Freehold Company.[19]
  • March 1908 - Farewell dinner for the publican's son, Norman McAllister, who was leaving for Africa.[20]

Inquests[edit | edit source]

  • December 1881, on James Downes, a child killed when his head was crushed by a waggon wheel.[21]
  • November 1883, on Hugh McLennan, an 18 year old miner who was killed when he fell 480 feet into the shaft of the Young Band Extended Company.[22]
  • September 1886, on Phillip Mitchell, a 59 year old contractor, who committed suicide by jumping into the shaft of the Serjeant's Freehold Company mine.[23]
  • April 1889, on Ellen Hurley, killed when a fence at the Ballarat Tramway Company stables on corner of Skipton and Darling Street fell on her.[24]

Mining[edit | edit source]

Political[edit | edit source]

  • August 1871, Daniel Brophy (a Ballarat publican), candidate for the south ward, spoke at the hotel to about 150 ratepayers.[34]
  • August 1878, a meeting to support J. Hickman as a candidate for the South Ward.[35]
  • August 1886, a meeting to hear Mr. Gore, a candidate for the Wellington province.[36]

Sport[edit | edit source]

The People[edit | edit source]

See also[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. Bradley Alan The Golden City and It's Tramways. Ballarat Tramway Museum, 2005.
  2. 2.0 2.1 1869 'POLICE.', The Ballarat Star (Vic. : 1865 - 1924), 13 October, p. 4. , viewed 08 Jun 2019,
  3. 3.0 3.1 1870 'NEWS AND NOTES.', The Ballarat Star (Vic. : 1865 - 1924), 1 August, p. 2. , viewed 27 Mar 2020,
  4. 1877 'TOWN POLICE COURT.', The Ballarat Courier (Vic. : 1869 - 1884; 1914 - 1918), 28 March, p. 4. , viewed 17 May 2022,
  5. 5.0 5.1 1877 'ANNUAL LICENSING MEETING.', The Ballarat Star (Vic. : 1865 - 1924), 19 December, p. 4. , viewed 06 Jun 2021,
  6. 6.0 6.1 1878 'ALLEGED RAPE.', The Ballarat Courier (Vic. : 1869 - 1883; 1914 - 1918), 19 October, p. 4. , viewed 08 Jun 2020,
  7. 7.0 7.1 1878 'Advertising', The Ballarat Star (Vic. : 1865 - 1924), 26 October, p. 3. , viewed 12 Mar 2020,
  8. 8.0 8.1 1888 'Advertising', The Ballarat Star (Vic. : 1865 - 1924), 17 February, p. 3. , viewed 04 Jun 2017,
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 1907 'UNSUCCESSFUL LICENSING PROSECUTIONS.', Geelong Advertiser (Vic. : 1859 - 1924), 17 September, p. 1, viewed 7 October, 2014,
  10. 1888 'Advertising', The Ballarat Star (Vic. : 1865 - 1924), 6 March, p. 4. , viewed 28 Feb 2021,
  11. 11.0 11.1 1891 'Advertising', The Ballarat Star (Vic. : 1865 - 1924), 14 March, p. 3. , viewed 27 Jun 2020,
  12. 1906 'No title', The Ballarat Star (Vic. : 1865 - 1924), 27 October, p. 4. , viewed 11 Jun 2020,
  13. 1907 'COUNTRY NEWS.', The Age (Melbourne, Vic. : 1854 - 1954), 17 September, p. 6. , viewed 28 Feb 2021,
  14. 1908 'FOUR MORE HOTELS DEALT WITH', The Ballarat Star (Vic. : 1865 - 1924), 24 April, p. 4. , viewed 08 Jun 2020,
  15. 1908 'BALLARAT HOTELS.', The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957), 19 May, p. 3. , viewed 12 May 2016,
  16. 1908 'REDAN CLUB.', The Ballarat Star (Vic. : 1865 - 1924), 16 September, p. 4. , viewed 23 Feb 2020,
  17. 1912 'FIRE IN REDAN.', The Ballarat Star (Vic. : 1865 - 1924), 4 September, p. 6. , viewed 23 Feb 2020,
  18. 1879 'NEWS AND NOTES', The Ballarat Star (Vic. : 1865 - 1924), 27 May, p. 2. , viewed 14 Jan 2021,
  19. 1883 'SEWS AND NOTES.', The Ballarat Star (Vic. : 1865 - 1924), 28 May, p. 2. , viewed 21 Mar 2021,
  20. 1908 'PERSONAL ITEMS.', The Ballarat Star (Vic. : 1865 - 1924), 27 March, p. 1. , viewed 29 Apr 2020,
  21. 1878 'INQUEST.', The Ballarat Courier (Vic. : 1869 - 1884; 1914 - 1918), 21 December, p. 2. , viewed 25 Sep 2021,
  22. 1883 'NEWS AND NOTES.', The Ballarat Star (Vic. : 1865 - 1924), 24 November, p. 2. , viewed 27 Jun 2020,
  23. 1886 'No title', The Ballarat Star (Vic. : 1865 - 1924), 21 September, p. 2. , viewed 05 Jul 2020,
  24. 1889 'No title', The Ballarat Star (Vic. : 1865 - 1924), 10 April, p. 2. , viewed 08 Jun 2021,
  25. 1888 'PUBLIC MEETING RE MINING MATTERS AT REDAN.', The Ballarat Star (Vic. : 1865 - 1924), 22 December, p. 4. , viewed 26 Feb 2022,
  26. 1873 'NEW KOH-I-NOOR TRIBUTE COMPANY.', The Ballarat Star (Vic. : 1865 - 1924), 29 January, p. 3. , viewed 13 Mar 2021,
  27. 1873 'NEW KOH-I-NOOR TRIBUTE COMPANY.', The Ballarat Star (Vic. : 1865 - 1924), 30 December, p. 2. , viewed 13 Mar 2021,
  28. 1874 'NEW KOH-I-NOOR TRIBUTE COMPANY.', The Ballarat Star (Vic. : 1865 - 1924), 31 March, p. 3. , viewed 13 Mar 2021,
  29. 1874 'NEW KOH-I-NOOR TRIBUTE COMPANY.', The Ballarat Star (Vic. : 1865 - 1924), 5 May, p. 3. , viewed 13 Mar 2021,
  30. 1881 'STAR OF THE EAST COMPANY.', The Ballarat Courier (Vic. : 1869 - 1884; 1914 - 1918), 22 June, p. 4. , viewed 25 Sep 2021,
  31. 1883 'STAR OF THE EAST COMPANY.', The Ballarat Courier (Vic. : 1869 - 1883; 1914 - 1918), 24 April, p. 4. , viewed 29 Apr 2020,
  32. 1883 'STAR OF THE EAST COMPANY, SEBASTOPOL.', The Ballarat Star (Vic. : 1865 - 1924), 28 September, p. 4. , viewed 29 Apr 2020,
  33. 1881 'STRATHBOGIE RANGES COMPANY.', The Ballarat Courier (Vic. : 1869 - 1884; 1914 - 1918), 26 January, p. 4. , viewed 25 Sep 2021,
  34. 1871 'THE CITY ELECTION.', The Ballarat Star (Vic. : 1865 - 1924), 1 August, p. 2. , viewed 23 Feb 2020,
  35. 1878 'MEETINGS OF MR HICKMAN'S SUPPORTERS.', The Ballarat Courier (Vic. : 1869 - 1884; 1914 - 1918), 2 August, p. 4. , viewed 28 Feb 2021,
  36. 1886 'ELECTION NOTES.', The Ballarat Star (Vic. : 1865 - 1924), 6 August, p. 4. , viewed 25 Sep 2021,
  37. 1887 'CRICKET.', The Ballarat Star (Vic. : 1865 - 1924), 27 September, p. 4. , viewed 25 Oct 2021,
  38. 1902 'REDAN QUOIT CLUB.', The Ballarat Star (Vic. : 1865 - 1924), 29 August, p. 4. , viewed 03 May 2020,
  39. 1873 'LICENSING BENCH.', The Ballarat Star (Vic. : 1865 - 1924), 24 December, p. 4. , viewed 28 May 2018,
  40. 1875 'POLICE.', The Ballarat Star (Vic. : 1865 - 1924), 22 December, p. 4. , viewed 19 Aug 2022,
  41. 1876 'POLICE.', The Ballarat Star (Vic. : 1865 - 1924), 30 August, p. 4. , viewed 30 May 2024,
  42. 1876 'No title', The Ballarat Courier (Vic. : 1869 - 1883; 1914 - 1918), 25 August, p. 2. , viewed 31 Jul 2019,
  43. 1876 'POLICE.', The Ballarat Star (Vic. : 1865 - 1924), 28 September, p. 4. , viewed 23 Dec 2017,
  44. 1878 'POLICE INTELLIGENCE.', The Ballarat Star (Vic. : 1865 - 1924), 9 November, p. 4. , viewed 27 Jun 2020,
  45. 1888 'No title', The Ballarat Star (Vic. : 1865 - 1924), 21 March, p. 2. , viewed 03 Mar 2021,
  46. 1900 'OBITUARY.', The Ballarat Star (Vic. : 1865 - 1924), 7 September, p. 1. , viewed 29 Apr 2020,
  47. 1905 'TRANSFERRED LICENSES.', The Ballarat Star (Vic. : 1865 - 1924), 5 August, p. 8. , viewed 25 May 2022,
  48. 1909 'COUNTRY NEWS.', The Age (Melbourne, Vic. : 1854 - 1954), 5 June, p. 14. , viewed 08 Oct 2018,

External Links[edit | edit source]