United States Hotel (Main Road)

From Hotels of Ballarat
For other hotels with the same or similar names, see United States Hotel
United States Hotel
United States Hotel, on right, as recreated at Sovereign Hill
Town Ballarat
Street Main Road
Known dates 1854-1873

The United States Hotel was in Ballarat, Victoria, <1854-1873>

Site[edit | edit source]

The hotel was in Main Street, Ballarat.[1]

Background[edit | edit source]

The hotel was destroyed by fire in December 1855. After being rebuilt it was damaged in another fire in 1861, and destroyed by a third fire in 1862. The hotel was rebuilt again after 1862. Another fire totally destroyed the building again in April 1866. A reproduction of the United States Hotel has been built at Sovereign Hill.

History[edit | edit source]

A meeting was held at the hotel in October 1854:

A public meeting was called to be held in the large room of the United States Hotel, Ballarat Flat, for the purpose of explaining to the public a scheme for the establishment of “a bank for the people” to be known as the “Colonial Bank of Australasia.”[2]

The hotel was destroyed by a fire on 1 December 1855, which appears to have started at the hotel, and then burnt down many other shops and businesses in Main Road. At least three people died in the blaze, including Albion H. Nicholls who was a partner in the hotel with William John Emery and the Adelphi Theatre which was also destroyed in the blaze.

Upon reaching the scene of destruction, where thousands had in a few minutes assembled, I found the Little Wonder Store, United States Hotel, the American Express Store, Adelphi Theatre, and Hemingway and Jones' Drapery Store, on the one side, and the whole line of stores from the junction of the Melbourne and Geelong roads to the inn belonging to Messrs. Moses and Son, an immense body of flames, over which, from the nature of the buildings and want of systematic action, there was no control. Under these circumstances the only course to pursue was to prevent any further progress by pulling down the adjoining stores which, from the numbers actively engaged, was soon effected.[3]
The first body was supposed to be that of Robert Aldcorn. William Haggerty sworn-I went to the United States Hotel, last night, about 11 o'clock and I saw there Robert Aldcorn at the bar; I heard him say that he was going to sleep there ; I then went to bed in the same hotel, and fell asleep, and in the middle of the night I was awoke by a firebrand falling on my bed; I escaped with difficulty from the fire with a blanket round me; saw Robert Aldcorn going into the passage upstairs leading to the bedroom, and l never saw him afterwards ; he is now missing, and cannot be found anywhere.[4]
THE FIRE AT BALLARAT. ... William Kishere Sworn - I was working on the gumtree flat last night, when I saw a fire near the United States Hotel, when I went there, the fire was in the United States, Little Wonder Store, and American Express, when we arrived there was a cry of a body burning at the time, we went in and got it out and threw water over it, in doing so we were ourselves severely burnt, as the flames were all around; we found the second body lying near some galvanized iron or zinc roofing, we also brought it out to the Charlie Napier; there was no dress on the body, when we touched it it went to pieces, the head was much charred, we could not say whether it was male or female. The United States hotel has been completely burnt down.[4]
The jury having been sworn proceeded to examine the body. Name unknown. The body was a charred undistinguishable mas, the legs were burnt off from above the knee, the head was almost burnt away, being not much larger than a clenched hand. From the narrowness of the shoulders and the width across the abdomen, the body was supposed to be that of a woman. Henry Seekamp, sworn-During the fire it was reported that the bodies of two persons were in the fire; I first heard of the fire about one o'clock, I think; I went down to it, and found the flames raging in and around the United States hotel; I saw the bodies and suggested that steps should be taken to get them out for the purpose of identification; Mr Magill and I took a long pole and threw away some timber that was burning near the corpses; I then went in and endeavoured to get the body out ; it seemed to me to be that of a woman; it was in a reclining position with the head thrown back; I endeavored to take the head from the trunk for the purpose of identification; the head crumbled to pieces in the handkerchief which I used ; the hotel was burned down at this time; I was obliged to retire owing to the heat and smoke; I afterwards assisted in getting the body out.[4]
John William Emery sworn-I was part proprietor of the United States Hotel. I had the sole management of the establishment. I was getting into bed between twelve and one o'clock, when some one cried out " Emery, there is a fire." I jumped up and ran to the down I found one side of the bar all in flames, I saw no one in the bar at that time. I afterwards met two of the females of the hotel coming out, they exclaimed " My God ! Emery, we are burnt. I then went to the Arcade Hotel and got a coat, hat, and a pair of shoes. I came back again. I believe the fire commenced in the hotel. I think in some of the girls' rooms, or in No. 11. The evidence of this witness tending throw doubts upon the supposition that the body wasthat of a woman, the jury expressed a wish to have a post mortem examination for the purpose of ascertaining the sex. The coroner then sent for Dr. Sutherland for this purpose, and adjourned the jury for an hour.[4]
About an hour after the commencement two bodies were seen at the back part of the hotel amidst the burning ashes, whence by the active exertions of Mr. Seekamp and Mr. M'Gill, the remains—one consisting of the body without arms, the lower part of the legs, and the other a mere trunk, the head having fallen to pieces in Mr. Seekamp's hands—were taken out and, removed to the Charlie Napier Hotel, where an inquest was held on them during the day. From, the evidence given by Mr. Emery, one of the proprietors of the United States Hotel, it appears that on going to bed he was alarmed by the cry of fire, which was proceeding from the lower portion of the building, when he rushed out almost naked, and again returned for his trousers, fortunately sustaining no injury. Mr. Nicholls, another proprietor, who was sleeping in the room over the bar, in making his escape through the house got burnt from head to foot, was found in the road rolling over and over in intense agony, the flesh falling from him in flakes as large as the hand, and taken to Mr. Smith's refreshment rooms, next to the Montezuma, when after lingering for several hours he expired. Before death he was fully conscious of all that was passing, and knew that he was dying.[3]

Several people had lucky escapes from the blaze:

Two young women engaged in the hotel were, by the bravery of a carpenter named Macleod, miraculously saved : finding the house in flames, he rushed into the room in which they were sleeping, and threw them out at the window, when they were caught by the crowd; both of them, however, had their night-clothes burnt on them, injuring the head and upper part of the body ; they were taken across to the Arcade Hotel, where they are now lying, but I believe in a state of no very great danger. The carpenter who thus nobly conducted himself escaped, I believe, unhurt.[3]

The Wizard Jacobs, a conjuror from England, had a dramatic escape, but lost all his stage props and equipment:

The wizard Jacobs, who had also a narrow escape of his life, saved himself by leaping from a window at the side into the adjoining store; his brother, who was sleeping in the theatre, also had a narrow escape, and for some time both were running about, each apprehensive, for the other's safety.[3]
The Wizard Jacobs, who was stopping at the United States Hotel had a very narrow escape, having jumped from an upstairs window and luckily alighted on a canvas tent below, which broke his fall, and saved the loss of limb, or perhaps even worse consequences. The whole of his conjuring apparatus, however, or very nearly the whole, has been destroyed, and he will have to retrace his watery way to the mother country before such a loss can be replaced.[5]

Rebuilt[edit | edit source]

The hotel was rebuilt in a two week period and was ready for business in January 1856:

THE UNITED STATES HOTEL.- It has seldom been the lot of an Australian journalist to record a more spirited example of enterprise than that which we are now about to chronicle. 'Tis now about a month ago since the disastrous fire occurred which burned to the ground the United States Hotel and the adjoining buildings ; nearly all are now again open for the transaction of business ; but conspicuous among them all stands this hotel, which for exterior elegance and interior accommodation is a credit to Ballarat. The bar is 22 x 36 ; the dining-room 18 x 36 ; and there are besides, on the ground floor, a taproom, and sleeping rooms. Up stairs there are 16 bedrooms. Our readers will, perhaps, he surprised to learn that this building, which was opened on New Year's Day, was only begun 15 days previously, and that at that time the hardwood studs arid supports were growing in the forest. The proprietors certainly deserve support for their enterprise.[6]

In February 1856 it was announced that Lola Montez was booked to perform at the hotel:

Lola Montes. — We understand that this celebrated actress is to pay a visit to Ballarat as soon as the theatre at the United States Hotel is completed, and that will not be long, as it is pretty nearly ready now ; so young gentlemen look out for your hearts.[7]

In March 1856, Lola Montez had horsewhipped the editor of the Ballarat Times, Henry Seekamp, in the street outside the hotel. She cancelled the rest of her performances and departed for Bendigo:

LOLA MONTES— The excitement caused by the late fracas between Madame Lola Montes and Mr Seekamp, of the Ballarat Times, may now be said to have subsided. Madame left here yesterday morning on route to Bendigo. It is said that the cause of Madame leaving here so soon, is in consequence of some disagreement between her and the Manager of the Victoria Theatre. Be that as it may, her short stay has disappointed many people who were anxious to see so celebrated an artiste, especially so as she has succeeded in making friends of most of those who have attended her performances at the Victoria. During Madame's stay there has been on several occasions good houses at the above Theatre. The "Bacchus Minstrels" are to perform there to-morrow evening, so that the management is determined to do his best to cater for public entertainment, and to make up for the loss of Madame's services. I understand that Madame will shortly return to Ballarat. [8]

W. B. Withers wrote about the incident in January 1889 in an article about Alexander Thomson Morrison:

He (Morrison) heard Lola Montes harangue the crowd from the United States hotel balcony after having thrashed editor Seekamp, Lola herself being thrashed a few nights after by Mrs Brougham, wife of the Victoria Theatre lessee, for actual or supposed undue familiarity with Mr Brougham...Of the fascinating Lola our pioneer says:— “ She had the most wonderful eyes 1 ever beheld. The first cigarette I ever smoked was by her fair hands."[9]

A man was injured in a traffic accident outside the hotel in March 1856:

ACCIDENT. — Last Sunday, a man was run over by one of the coaches from Magpie near to the United States Hotel, and very seriously injured. The coach was running at a moderately slow pace, and no blame can be attached to the driver, who did everything in his power to prevent the accident. It appears that the unfortunate man was the worse for liquor and was himself to blame.[8]

It was offered for sale in January 1857, complete with its adjoining theatre and shop:

TO CAPITALISTS, SPECULATORS, WINE AND SPIRIT MERCHANTS, TRUSTEES, INVESTMENT SOCIETIES, THE PUBLIC OF VICTORIA, AND THE SURROUNDING COLONIES. Unrivalled Opportunity for securing the most valuable Hotel on the Township of Ballarat. The United States Hotel Victoria Theatre, &c., Situated on unquestionably the best stand for business on the Main-road, Ballarat Town ship. W. C. SMITH is honored with instructions from the Proprietors, Messrs. Moody and Smith, to sell per Private Contract, that well-known Hotel called THE UNITED STATES HOTEL. The Hotel, &c., has a frontage to the Main-Road, of 109 feet ; has a grand and imposing front having a beautiful Balcony extending the whole length of the buildings. The Bar, Measuring 35 feet by 21 feet 8 inches, is, with out exception, as complete as any in the colony, handsomely papered and fitted. On the one side is a Private Sitting Room ; on the other, leading through the Entrance Hall, is a Commercial Room, 36 ft. x 22 ft. 8 inches; also a large and commodious Dining Room, capable of dining 100 persons, full daily. Detached Kitchen, 20 ft 15 ft., with all the necessary apparatus for cooking. To the right of the entrance hall is a splendid Theatre, called the "VICTORIA THEATRE" capable of accommodating 2,500 persons, fitted up with a stage 35 ft. x 27 ft, embellished in an artistic manner with Dramatic Scenery, Landscapes, Allegorical and other figures, &c, &c. The Theatre is altogether 140 ft. in length. The ground floor of the Theatre contains Two Large and Commodious Bars. There is, also, a neatly fitted Refreshment Room on the first floor, for the use of those in the boxes and gallery. The Theatre is, in itself, a most valuable property-has been built at a great cost, and is Crowded Nightly. It is constantly used for Public Meetings, Concerts, Balls, Theatres, &c. The Hotel, on the first floor, contains 30 Bed Booms, all sizes, fitted up with great taste, containing 80 beds, which are nightly filled. Whoever is the fortunate purchaser he will be under the necessity of erecting more bedrooms, as the present are by no means sufficient. Ascending from the Entrance Hall to the first landing, there is an elegantly fitted-up Ladies' Private Sitting Room, from which, by French easements, there is access to the Balcony. There it a road on one side of the building leading to Golden Point, and from thence to Ballarat West To the right of the Theatre is the United States Store, Doing an immense business. The Store has a frontage to the Main Road of 30 feet 6 inches by a depth altogether of 60 feet, which is divided into three rooms, containing shelving and all necessary fittings, &c. for carrying on an extensive business. The Hotel, Theatre, and Store have a most noble appearance, being all carried to the same height, and built in a uniform style. The buildings are built of the best material, and the whole was erected under the superintendence of one of the first architects in the colonies.
W. C. S. in calling the attention of the public of Victoria to this property, takes the opportunity of saying that it is long since he has had it in his power to recommend, with such entire confidence, property placed in his hands. The whole property, Hotel, Theatre, and Store, are unquestionably, at the present time, doing the very best business on Ballarat, with out any exception, and nothing would induce the present proprietors (who have realized a fortune with the property) to sell, were it not that one of them has got ill-health, and the other partner is anxious to return to his native land. For all further particulars, and for cards to view this unparalleled property, apply to W. C. SMITH, Auctioneer and Land Agent, Colonial Land Office, Sturt-street, Ballarat.[10]

It was still for sale in June 1857:

THE following valuable property, situated on the Main-road, in the very centre of the new township of Ballarat East. The United States Hotel, Victoria Theatre, Express Store. The whole block having a frontage to the Main-road of one hundred and five feet, with a good right of way. The above property is too well known to need comment, they will be sold in one lot or separately to suit purchasers. An early application will secure a good bargain, as the proprietors are anxious to leave the Colony. Terms easy For further particulars, apply to MESSRS. MOODY & SMITH, United States Hotel.[11]

During the license application in June 1857 there was a concern about the lack of stables, and the conduct of the hotel:

Mr Cuthbert appeared in support of the application. Mr Inspector Taylor stated that there was no stable at this house. Mr Cuthbert said they were in course of erection, in fact they were now completed. The application was granted, Mr Turner saying that in future none of those entertainments would be allowed which had hitherto taken place. He alluded to those after twelve o'clock. Mr Moody had a great responsibility, and he would observe that the applicant must take care that no person should be allowed to be served with liquor in the house whilst in a state of intoxication.[12]

In June 1858, the negro cook at the hotel successfully took legal action against a customer:

Hewlett v Cornish for abusive language - Mr Lewis for complainant, Mr Walsh for defendant. Complainant deposed- Am a restaurant keeper at the United States Hotel. Defendant came in last Saturday evening and an altercation taking place about some potatoes, defendant made use of some very insulting language to me, several persons being present. Defendant called me offensive names (language quoted); and said if he had me in New Orleans he would drive me like the rest of the niggers, and put me under the lash. Defendant continuing his insulting address, I ordered him out and took hold of his collar to put him out, when an assault took place. Mr Walsh cross-examined the complainant, but elicited nothing of importance. Thos. Beasley and Chas. Collier in complainant's employ, corroborated complainant's evidence in some particulars, but in others there was contradiction. Mr Walsh demanded a dismissal of the case, as the place where the language took place was not a public one. The bench ruled otherwise, as it was in a licensed house, and the chairman expressed his satisfaction at not being in so free a country as to be able to see a man abused with impunity because of his color. In the case before the Court the highest penalty would be imposed, namely, £10 and costs. Notice of appeal was given. A charge of assault was then preferred against the same defendant by the same complainant. The facts alleged were the same as those in the previous case, and the examination was decorated with most extraordinary cross-swearing between the parties concerned. After the case had occupied the time of the Court a considerable period, the Court adjourned till half past three p.m.[13]

In December 1858 the publican was fined 10s for having an unlicensed bagatelle table.[14]

There was a huge fire in Main Road in January 1861 which destroyed over 60 buildings including seven hotels. The United States Hotel was in great danger during the fire, and was lucky to escape with minor damage:

There were now no hopes of saving the Napier Theatre, and much alarm was felt for the United States Hotel, but the brick building of Mr Jones seemed likely to afford a chance of safety. The stores between were soon a mass of flame, and the Napier Theatre was quickly ignited. The only chance of saving the rest of the main road in this direction was the making of a wide gap, while the flames were stayed by the brick walls of Mr Jones' Criterion Store. The firemen rushed some dozen houses further on, and began to pull down a small building of Messrs Lister and Angel, standing at the corner of a right-of-way. It soon appeared that this would not be necessary, as the store of Mr Jones formed a great obstacle to the progress of the fire. Every effort was concentrated on this point, two chains of bucket men were formed, the hoses were brought to bear, and happily to say, the fire was at last stopped. A crowd of men rushed to the hack of the premises, and pulled down all out buildings, threw water on the burning embers, and finally saved the United States Hotel, which at one time was in the most imminent danger.[15]

In February 1863 the hotel was offered for sale.[16]

The hotel was totally destroyed by a fire on 11 April 1866:

BURNING OF THE UNITED STATES BALLARAT EAST. About half-past eight o'clock on the evening of Wednesday evening, 11th April. The alarm sounded loud and long from the towers of both fire brigades, and the town was soon in motion towards Ballarat East, where an extensive conflagration appeared to have broken out. The glare of the fire lighted up the whole of Golden Point, and the line of buildings along the main road, and higher up towards Specimen Hill, were brilliantly illuminated by the blaze which, when first seen, seemed to threaten the whole of that part of the eastern borough. Cabs and vehicles of every description were soon hurried along to the scene of the conflagration, which was soon found to be at the United States hotel, a large wooden building situated a little way beyond the Charlie Napier Theatre. The fire gained a rapid hold upon the hotel, and beginning upstairs in the vicinity of the bedrooms, it soon stretched along the upper storey, and the whole premises were within the space of a few minutes enveloped in a blaze.

The inmates of the hotel managed to secure a few articles from the flames, but they were very few, and only comprised such things as in the hurry of the moment were most facile to remove. The wind was fresh at the time but not very strong, and as the flames rose over the burning premises, the buildings further down the street, which were also of wood, appeared in a hopeless condition. The only thing in their favor, and that appeared at first doubtful, being from the fact of the wind blowing sufficiently in a direction across the street to carry the flames more towards the rear. As destruction, however appeared so imminent, the residents in many of the adjacent buildings began to remove their effects, and as a number of willing hands made short work of it, in a brief period the whole centre of the narrow street was occupied with goods of every conceivable description. Fortunately, however, the efforts of both brigades to stay the progress of the flames were successful-thanks to their efficiency and the fact of a plentiful supply of water being at hand. The fire which threatened destruction to a large amount of property was then speedily got under and further danger averted. The flames were confined to the hotel in front, but in the rear several little tenements, and one belonging to to a cabman named Lyte caught fire; not much damage was however done in that direction. Every vestige of the hotel was destroyed, stabling, outhouses and all, and a few blackened stumps were the only remains of it shortly after nine o'clock.
As might have been expected, from the serious appearance of the conflagration at first, there were an immense number of persons present. The street, in fact, on both sides, was lined with spectators from all parts of Ballarat and even the roofs of houses in the vicinity to windward of the building, were chosen as sites from which to view the conflagration. The firemen appeared to work with a will and as the result proved successfully, for the purpose of preventing the spread of the fire, and it is therefore with regret that we have to state that an accident occurred to Mr G. Lovitt, captain of the Western Brigade. He was in the rear of the premises directing his men, when he was struck with a piece of falling timber, and on coming to the front he was seen to stagger and fall as if insensible. He was then taken to the Rising Sun hotel, and Dr.Nicholson being shortly afterwards in attendance, it was found he had sustained a slight concussion of the brain. Mr Lovitt under treatment, however, partially recovered, whereupon he was taken home. There he suffered a relapse, but it was not expected he had sustained any very serious injury. One of the firemen at the Western Brigade, named Carter, was injured by the wheel of one of the engines passing over his side, injuring him somewhat severely. These were the whole of the casualties as far as we could ascertain. The police were present in force from both boroughs under sergeants M'Culloch and Larner, and did good service.
As to the origin of the the fire, we understand that it was caused by a servant maid in the hotel passing along the lobby upstairs with a candle, which accidentally caught the lining on the wall, and before a bucket of water could be procured to extinguish the flames, the whole wall was in a blaze. The flames spread with lightning rapidity along the paper and canvas, and a sort of panic having seized every one from the suddenness of the accident and the alarming proportions which it at once assumed, all haste was made to save as much as possible. A young man was lying sick in one of the upstairs rooms, and he was only with some little difficulty removed in time. The landlord of the hotel, Mr Harris, was, we understand, insured for £300, but as be has lost almost everything, it is stated that amount will not nearly cover his losses.
The timber yard to the right of the hotel and adjoining the Charlie Napier Theatre escaped, uninjured. We heard that the cabman Lyte, whose stables were partly burned, lost one of his horses, as the animal was galloping along the street. He had opened the stable door and let the horses loose, when they immediately bolted out, and one of them coming in contact with a car, was we were informed, fatally wounded.

It will be remembered that the predecessor of this hotel was burned down in 1855 the premises then being kept by a firm of which a Mr Nicholls was a member, and who perished in the ruins, having returned to secure a sum of money. We are informed by Lieutenant Vance that Mr Lovitt was more seriously injured than at first seemed to be supposed. He was attended by Messrs Hillas, Nicholson, Richardson, and Whitcombe, and it was deemed necessary to afford him vigilant attention overnight.[17]

In September 1869 the hotel was again under threat when the brothel next door, run by a Mrs McWalter was burned to the ground, damaging "Fishers Scotch Pie House" which was adjacent.[18]

In January 1872, a man was charged for his behaviour at the hotel:

Daniel Breen was charged with having. used insulting language to the landlord of the United States hotel The charge was proved, and the prisoner fined 40s, with fourteen days in gaol in default.[19]

Community Involvement[edit | edit source]

Mining[edit | edit source]

The People[edit | edit source]

See also[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 "Licencing Court for Publicans," The Star, Thursday 19 June 1862, pg. 4, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article66324943, (accessed January 19, 2014)
  2. 1904 'BALLARAT FIFTY YEARS' AGO', The Ballarat Star (Vic. : 1865 - 1924), 29 October, p. 7. , viewed 13 Jul 2022, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article208513438
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 1855 'BALLAARAT.', Bendigo Advertiser (Vic. : 1855 - 1918), 4 December, p. 2. , viewed 30 Dec 2016, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article88048166
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 1855 'THE FIRE AT BALLARAT.', Geelong Advertiser and Intelligencer (Vic. : 1851 - 1856), 4 December, p. 2. (DAILY), viewed 22 Jul 2018, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article91864440
  5. 1855 'AWFUL FIRE AT BALLAARAT.', The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957), 4 December, p. 5. , viewed 29 Dec 2016, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article4824879
  6. 1856 'BALLARAT.', The Age (Melbourne, Vic. : 1854 - 1954), 7 January, p. 3. , viewed 13 Jul 2022, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article154866071
  7. 1856 'BALLARAT.', The Age (Melbourne, Vic. : 1854 - 1954), 7 February, p. 3. , viewed 13 Jul 2022, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article154865420
  8. 8.0 8.1 1856 'BALLARAT.', The Age (Melbourne, Vic. : 1854 - 1954), 7 March, p. 3. , viewed 16 Jul 2022, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article154865242
  9. 1889 'BALLARAT CHRONICLES AND PICTURES.', The Ballarat Star (Vic. : 1865 - 1924), 12 January, p. 1. (Ballarat Star (Vic. : 1865 - 1924)), viewed 17 Jul 2022, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article209453386
  10. 1857 'Advertising', The Star (Ballarat, Vic. : 1855 - 1864), 7 January, p. 4. , viewed 23 Apr 2018, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article66040371
  11. 1857 'Advertising', The Star (Ballarat, Vic. : 1855 - 1864), 27 June, p. 4. , viewed 28 Apr 2019, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article66042888
  12. 12.0 12.1 1857 'GENERAL ANNUAL LICENSING MEETING.', The Star (Ballarat, Vic. : 1855 - 1864), 13 June, p. 2. , viewed 10 Aug 2017, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article66042654
  13. 1858 'EASTERN POLICE COURT.', The Star (Ballarat, Vic. : 1855 - 1864), 17 June, p. 2. , viewed 10 Aug 2019, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article66048704
  14. 14.0 14.1 1858 'EASTERN POLICE COURT.', The Star (Ballarat, Vic. : 1855 - 1864), 13 December, p. 4, viewed 21 October, 2014, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article66332732
  15. 1861 'GREAT CONFLAGRATION AT BALLARAT.', Mount Alexander Mail (Vic. : 1854 - 1917), 14 January, p. 3. , viewed 13 Jul 2022, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article199602493
  16. 1863 'Advertising', The Star (Ballarat, Vic. : 1855 - 1864), 21 February, p. 1. , viewed 29 Mar 2020, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article72555082
  17. 1866 'BURNING OF THE UNITED STATE HOTEL, BALLARAT EAST', The Ballarat Star (Vic. : 1865 - 1924), 12 April, p. 2. , viewed 12 Jul 2022, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article112868674
  18. 1869 'FIRE AT BALLARAT.', The Herald (Melbourne, Vic. : 1861 - 1954), 3 September, p. 3. , viewed 13 Jul 2022, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article244910037
  19. 1872 'BALLARAT EAST COURT.', The Ballarat Star (Vic. : 1865 - 1924), 13 January, p. 3. , viewed 27 Feb 2021, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article197626009
  20. 1860 'Advertising', The Star (Ballarat, Vic. : 1855 - 1864), 25 August, p. 4. , viewed 19 Jul 2017, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article66057855
  21. The Geelong, Ballarat, and Creswick's Creek commercial directory and almanac for 1856 : with a map of Geelong, 1856.
  22. 1858 'EASTERN POLICE COURT.', The Star (Ballarat, Vic. : 1855 - 1864), 16 June, p. 2. , viewed 06 Dec 2019, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article66048685
  23. 1858 'EASTERN POLICE COURT.', The Star (Ballarat, Vic. : 1855 - 1864), 15 July, p. 2. , viewed 03 Nov 2017, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article66049185
  24. 1859 'AFTERNOON SITTINGS.', The Star (Ballarat, Vic. : 1855 - 1864), 14 June, p. 3. , viewed 29 Aug 2019, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article66053609
  25. 1860 'LICENSING BENCH.', The Star (Ballarat, Vic. : 1855 - 1864), 23 May, p. 2. , viewed 12 Dec 2019, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article72466933
  26. 1860 'EASTERN POLICE COURT.', The Star (Ballarat, Vic. : 1855 - 1864), 27 June, p. 4. , viewed 21 Dec 2018, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article66056679
  27. 1861 'EASTERN POLICE COURT.', The Star (Ballarat, Vic. : 1855 - 1864), 27 June, p. 1. (SUPPLEMENT TO THE STAR.), viewed 01 Jun 2018, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article66340216
  28. 1873 'LICENSING BENCH.', The Ballarat Star (Vic. : 1865 - 1924), 23 December, p. 2. , viewed 09 Jun 2017, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article201608881

External Links[edit | edit source]